Augmenting Commercialization of New Technology Intensive Firms
Keywords:Commercialization, start-up fundings, high-technology based companies
AbstractTechnology licensing and commercialization has increasingly been looked at as a complementary and attractive solution to gain insights into new technology innovations and market products.Â Stories of successful research commercialization programs from Silicon Valley have become the catalyst that encourages states to provide incentives and established structural reform in the form of state controlled agencies to accelerate and assist the commercialization of potential R&D products. Considerable debate has arisen about the effectiveness of those agencies, but asides for a few lone voices, the scholarly literature has largely neglected the views of grant recipients in commercializing of scientific research.Â This study hopes to shed some understanding of the impediments that grant recipients face in their endeavor to commercialize scientific research. Qualitative data examination utilizing theme analysis was performed and three main determinants were identified: human resources, market penetration, and financial constraints. We believe these three determinants have wider implication to the modern regime of commercialized scientific research.Â Â Â Â Â
Arntzen Bechina, A. 2007. Knowledge, Learning and Innovation: The Quest for a Competitive Edge. In Cader, Y. (Ed.). Integrated Knowledge Management. Heidelberg Press, Heidelberg.
Martin, M. J. 2007. University Perspective on Commercialization of IP. Technology Management. September-October 2007. 13â€“18.
Rasmussen, E. 2008. Government Instruments to Support the Commercialization oOf University Research: Lessons From Canada. Technovation. 28(2): 506â€“517.
Wonglimpiyarat, J. 2009. Commercialization Strategies Of Technology: Lessons from Silicon Valley. Journal of Technology Transfer. 1â€“12 at DOI 10.1007/s10961-009-9117-3.
Youtie, J., Iacopetta, M., and Graham. 2007. Assessing the Nature of Nanotechnology: Can We Uncover an Emerging General Purpose Technology? Journal of Technology Transfer. doi:10.1007/s10961-007-9030-6.
Miller, R. and Cote, M. 1985. Growing the Next Silicone Valley. Harvard Business Review. 63: 114â€“123.
Uranga, M. G., Kerexeta, G. E. and CampÃ s-Velasco, J. 2007. The Dynamics of Commercialization of Scientific Knowledge in Biotechnology and Nanotechnology. European Planning Studies. 15(9): 1199â€“11214 at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09654310701529136 (access on 15 January, 2009).
Harman, G and Harman, K. 2004. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management. 26(2): 153â€“169.
Gulbranson, C. A and Audretsch, D. B. 2008. Proof of Concept Centers: Accelerating the Commercialization of University Innovation. Journal of Technology Transfer. 33: 249â€“258.
Rothaermel, F. T., Agung, S. D., and Jiang, L. 2007. University Entrepreneurship: A Taxonomy of the Literature. Industrial and Corporate Change. 16(4): 691â€“791.
Gehani, R. R. 2007. Technology roadmapping for Commercializing Strategic Innovations. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation. 2(2):31â€“45.
Chen, K., and Kenney, M. 2007. Universities/research Institutes and Regional Innovation Systems: The Cases of Beijing and Shenzhen. World Development. 35(6): 1056â€“1074.
Guan, J. C., Yam, R. C., and Mok, C. K. 2005. Collaboration between Industry and Research Institutes/Universities on Industrial Innovation in Beijing. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management. 17(3): 339â€“353.
Xue, L. 2004. Universityâ€“market linkages in China: The Case of University-affiliated Enterprises. Paper Presented at the Symposium on University, September 7â€“8, Research Institute and Industry Relations in the U.S., Taiwan and Mainland China, Stanford Project on Regions of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Palo Alto, CA.
Riding, A. L. 2008. Business Angels and Love Money Investors: Segments of the Informal Market for Risk Capital. Venture Capital. 10(4): 355â€“369.
Harrison, R. T. and Mason, C. M. 2008. Sampling and Data Collection in Business Angel Research. Venture Capital. 10(4): 305â€“308.
Philbin, S. 2008. Process Model for University-industry Research Collaboration. European Journal of Innovation Management. 11(4): 488â€“521.
Lehrer, M., Nell, P. and GÃ¤rber, L. 2009. A National Systems View of University Entrepreneurialism: Inferences from Comparison of the German and US Experience. Research Policy. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2008.11.007. 1â€“13.
MacBryde, J. 1997. Commercialization of University Technology: A Case in Robotics. Technovation. 17(1): 39â€“46.
Ahmad D. R. and Rabelo, L. C. 2006. Assessment Framework for the Evaluation and Prioritization of University Inventions for Licensing and Commercialization. Engineering Management Journal. 18(4): 28â€“36.
Gehani, R. R. 2007. Technology roadmapping for Commercializing Strategic Innovations. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation. 2(2): 31â€“45.
Malaysian Science and Technology Information Centre (MASTIC), Malaysian Science & Technology Indicators 2008 Report. 2008. Malaysia. 11â€“125.
Booysen, K. 2010. An Analysis of the Process from Innovation to Commercialization-A South African perspective,. 16â€“172.
Business Dictionary at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/grant.html#ixzz2szZATRhF (access on 28 Jan 2014).
Investopedia at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/government-grant.asp (access on 28 Jan 2014).
Berman, E. P. 2008. Why Did Universities Start Patenting?: Institution-Building and the Road to the Bayh-Dole Act. Social Studies of Science. 38(6): 835â€“871.
Meyer, G., Zacharakis, A., and de Castro, J. 1993. Postmortem of New Venture Failure: An Attribution Theory Perspective. Paper Presented to Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference In Kruger, N. F., Rilley, M. D. and Carsrud, A. L. 2000. Competing Models of Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Business Venturing. 15: 411â€“432.
Oâ€™Grady. 2002. Influence of Personal and Environmental Factors on Academic Medical Researchersâ€™ Decisions to Commercialization the Results of Their Research, PhD, University of Calgary.
Nelson, J. 2005. Leveraging the Development Impact of Business in the Fight against Global Poverty. 1â€“14.
Muscio, A. 2009. What Drives The University Use of Technology Transfer Offices? Evidence From Italy. Journal of Technology Transfer. DOI 10.1007/s10961-009-9121-9127.
Zucker, L. G. and Darby, M. R. 2001. Capturing Technological Opportunity via Japanâ€™s Star Scientists: Evidence from Japanese Firmsâ€™ Biotech Patents and Products. Journal of Technology Transfer. 26: 37â€“58.
Jain, S., George, G. and Maltarich, M. 2009. Academics or Entrepreneurs? Investigating Role Identity Modification of University Scientists Involved in Commercialization Activity. Research Policy. 38: 922â€“935.
Strickland, S. L. 2003. Copyrightâ€™s Digital Dilemma Today: Fair Use or Unfair Constraints? Part 1: The Battle over File Sharing. 1â€“5.
Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Sage, London.
Yin, R. K. 1994. Case Study Research, Design and Methods. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, Sage Publications.
Merriam, S. B. and Simpson, E. L. 1998. A Guide for Research for Educators and Trainers of Adults. Malabar, Florida: Robert F. Krieger Publishing Co.
Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. 1990. Basics of Qualitative Research: Ground Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Zhang, Y., Puterman, M., Nelson, M. and Atkins, D. 2012. A Simulation Optimization Approach to Long-Term Care Capacity Planning, Operations Research. 60(2): 249â€“261.
Meseri, O. and Maital, S. 2001. A Survey Analysis of University-Technology Transfer in Israel: Evaluation of Projects and Determinants of Success. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 26(1â€“2): 115â€“125.
Udell, G. and Hignite, M. 2007. New Product Commercialization: Needs and Strategies. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 12(2): 75â€“92.
Maznah Ghazali, M. Said Othman, Ahmad Zahiruddin Yahya and M. Sarif Ibrahim. 2008. Products and Country of Origin Effects: The Malaysian Consumersâ€™ Perception, International Review of Business Research Papers. 4(2):91â€“102.
Tether, B. S. and Tajar, A. 2008. Beyond Industryâ€“university Links: Sourcing Knowledge for Innovation from Consultants, Private Research Organisations And The Public Science-Base. Research Policy. 37: 1079â€“1095.
Calomiris, C.W. and Carlson, M. 2014. Corporate Governance And Risk Management At Unprotected Banks. NBER Working Paper Series, National Bureau Of Economic Research, Working Paper 19806. 1â€“62, at http://www.nber.org/papers/w19806 (access on 31 January 2014).
Yu, Y., Liang, L., and Gao, Y. 2013. Empirical Study of Factors Affecting the Financing Ability of Small- and Medium-Sized Real Estate Enterprises. ICCREM 2013: 836â€“845. doi: 10.1061/9780784413135.078.
Copyright of articles that appear in Jurnal Teknologi belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions, or any other reproductions of similar nature.