Terrestrial Laser Scanners Pre-Processing: Registration and Georeferencing
Keywords:Terrestrial laser scanner, pre-processing, data quality
AbstractTerrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is a non-contact sensor, optics-based instrument that collects three dimensional (3D) data of a defined region of an object surface automatically and in a systematic pattern with a high data collecting rate. This capability has made TLS widely applied for numerous 3D applications. With the ability to provide dense 3D data, TLS has improved the processing phase in constructing complete 3D model, which is much simpler and faster. Pre-processing is one of the phases involved, which consisted of registration and georeferencing procedures. Due to the many error sources occur in TLS measurement, thus, pre-processing can be considered as very crucial phase to identify any existence of errors and outliers. Any presence of errors in this phase can decrease the quality of TLS final product. With intention to discuss about this issue, this study has performed two experiments, which involved with data collection for land slide monitoring and 3D topography. By implementing both direct and indirect pre-processing method, the outcomes have indicated that TLS is suitable for applications which require centimetre level of accuracy.
Genechten, B. V. 2008. 3D Risk Mapping: Theory and Paractice on Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Publication compiles from training material prepared in the framework of the project â€˜Learning tools for advanced 3D surveying risk awareness project (3DRiskMapping).
Rabbani, T. 2006. Automatic Reconstruction of Industrial Installations Using Point Clouds and Images. A thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. TU Delft.
Reshetyuk, Y. 2009. Self-Calibration and Direct Georeferencing in Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Doctoral Thesis in Infrastructure. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Stockholm, Sweden. 66.
Varady, T. & Martin, R. 2002. Reverse Engineering. Chapter in Handbook of Computer Aided Geometric Design. Elsevier Science B. V.
Frank, C. L. 2003. Beautification of Reverse Engineered Geometric Models. A thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Department of Computer Science, Cardiff University.
Shi Pu. 2008. Automatic Building Modeling. Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Besl, P. J. and McKay, N. D. 1992. A Method For Registration of 3-D Shapes. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 14(2):239â€“256.
Johnny, P. and Guilherme, N. D. 2004. 3D Modeling of Real-World Objects Using Range and Intensity Images. Innovations In Machine Intelligence and Robot Perception.
Chen, Y. and Medioni, G. 1992. Object Modeling by Registration of Multiple Range Images. Image and Vision Computing. 14(2): 145â€“155.
Masuda, T. and Yokoya, N. 1994. A Robust Method for Registration and Segmentation of Multiple Range Images. In IEEE CAD-Based Vision Workshop. 106â€“113.
Johnson, A. and Kang, S. 1997. Registration and Integration of Textured 3D Data. In Conference on Recent Advances in 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling. 121â€“128.
Zulkepli M., Halim S. and Albert K. C. 2009. Accuracy Assessments of Point Cloud 3D Registration Method for High Accuracy Craniofacial Mapping. Geoinformation Science Journal. 9(2) : 36â€“44.
Wolf, P. R. and Dewitt, B. A. 2000. Elements of Photogrammetry with Application in GIS. Third Edition.The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Gordon, S. J. and Lichti, D. 2004. Error Propogation in Directly Georeferenced Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds for Cultural Heritage Recording. FIG Working Weeks 2004. Athens, Greece.
Alba, M. and Scaioni, M. 2007. Comparison of Techniques for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data Georeferencing Applied to 3-D Modelling of Cultural Heritage. IAPRSSIS. XXXVI(Part 5/W47). Zurich (Switzerland).
Gordon, S. J. 2005. Structural Deformation Measurement Using Terrestrial Laser Scanners. PhD thesis. Curtin University of Technology, Department of Spatial Sciences, Australia.
Copyright of articles that appear in Jurnal Teknologi belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions, or any other reproductions of similar nature.