• Mundher M. Alsamarraie School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
  • Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  • Farid Ghazali School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia




Construction industry, Disposal techniques, Steel waste, Sustainable, Control strategy


The construction industry is consuming substantial quantities of raw materials in processes, and it harms the environment by producing a considerable amount of waste. Steel is one of the common wastes produced in the construction industry. This research paper analyzes steel waste disposal techniques in the construction sites in Malaysia concerning environmental perspectives and sustains steel waste efficiently. This paper aims to examine the practical disposal techniques of steel waste in construction sites using the 3Rs concept of material sustainability. A questionnaire survey was effectively distributed to evaluate the practical disposal techniques of steel waste in the construction sector. The quantitative data of 66 out of 165 respondents were analyzed using SPSS software to decide whether the results met our research objectives. The results prove that construction and demolition stages have the highest amounts percentages of steel waste. Therefore, the reuse technique is a first and preferable option for construction stakeholders rather than adopting recycling techniques which include specific processes rising CO2 emissions. Reduce strategy: The highest impact and the top of the waste disposal hierarchy become a third option. This technique refers to the preliminary stages and stakeholders’ awareness of establishing steel waste management plans. Generally, the authors concluded that conventional implementation of project activities and poor adoption of innovation except for major projects had a significant impact on construction waste and steel waste. Therefore, they suggested studying the incurred cost of adopting each technique.


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How to Cite

M. Alsamarraie, M. ., Balasbaneh, A. T. ., & Ghazali, F. . (2022). EVALUATION OF 3RS CONCEPT FOR SUSTAINABLE STEEL WASTE DISPOSAL: CONTROL STRATEGY. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 34(1), 11-17. https://doi.org/10.11113/mjce.v34.17545