OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION REQUIRED FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF VITRUVIUS’S TEN BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE
Keywords:Architecture, civil engineering, construction, education, structural materials
AbstractThe contents of many books, prima facie, can be known by their title. But within the context of the present day grammatical construction and images formed in the mind through some words, Vitruvius’s “Ten Books on Architecture”, written in 1st century, does not fall into this category. Apparently, the over 2000 year’s gap in knowledge and usage of precepts as well as educational attainment that formed the basis for the writing constituted unfamiliar background and terrain for the 21st century researchers and academia. Consequently many civil engineering developmental resources for research activities contained in the book, especially on concrete and structural materials, remain hidden from many researchers. The purpose of this work is to identify the depths of instructional and educational attainment, both in learning and practice that formed the background for writing and thus, for the understanding of the book, especially for engineers in the developing Nations. To accomplish this work, the Roman society of the time and her educational systems were studied from materials available from the public domain. Analysis of the materials obtained showed that a wide-range and multi-faceted education through learning and practice, were required to operate in the construction industry at the time; and that all construction work, including military and machine construction were termed Architecture and under the control of the Head of the Government. It is also concluded that this learning, now parceled into different disciplines, is available in the public domain for the understanding and application of precepts in the Ten Books on Architecture for a robust structural and civil engineering practice
Adelagun. O. 2021. Ikoyi Building Collapse: Death toll rises to 42, survivors now
. Retrieved August 21, 2022 from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/493882-ikoyi-building-collapse-death-toll-rises-to-42-survivors-now-15.html
ACI. 1994. Proposed Revision of Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings (ACI 301 – 89). ACI Materials Journal, 91(1): 67 – 107.
Adewole, S. 2021. Ikoyi building collapse: Why we withdrew further services —Construction company. Retrieved September, 30, 2022 https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/493882-ikoyi-building-collapse-death-toll-rises-to-42-survivors-now-15.html
Augustus, D. 2021. The Deeds of Divine Augustus. Translated by Thomas Bushnell, BSG. Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds.html. Retrieved September 4, 2021 from http://classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds.html.
Barrow R. H. 1955. The Romans. Penguin Books Limited. Great Britain
Bosman, L. 2015. Proportion and Building Material, or Theory versus Practice in the Determination of the Module. Architectural Histories, 3(10): 1-10, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ah.cm
Caesar, J. 2016. Gallic Wars. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st edition, 146
Chambers. 1983. Chambers 20th Century Dictionary. New Edition, W & R Chambers Ltd.
Erismis, M. C. & Gezerman, A, O. 2013. A Critical Look at Vitruvius. Elixir Historical Preservation,55A. Available online at www.elixirpublishers.com (Elixir International Journal). Retrieved July 21, 2022 at www.elixirpublishers.com (Elixir International Journal).
Fapohunda, C. A. 2021. Approach to the Revitalization of Civil Engineering Education In Nigeria. Port Harcourt Journal of Educational Studies (PHAJOES), 6(1): 154 – 165.
Fapohunda, C. A., Akinbile, B. F., Bello, M., Josu, & Nnochiri, E. S. 2017. Societal and Environmental Factors as Inputs in the Development of Sustainable Engineering Curriculum in a Developing Nation: A CaseStudy. The Journal of the Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago, 45(2): 4 - 12
Fehskens, L. 2015. Book Review, Vitruvius, Ten Books on Architecture. Journal of Enterprise Architecture, 11(1): 55 – 61.
Janetius, S. T. 2020. What is Architecture?. In Books: Architecture Psychology, Space, Psyche, Enigma and Symbols. Mishil and Thrissur.
Ghazvini, K., Zandieh, M. and M. Vafamehr 2020. Exploring Kpis Utilization Effects on Decision Making for The Architectural Design Process in Industrial Buildings, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 16(1): 198 – 209. DOI: 10.2478/cee-2020-0019
Grúňová, Z. and Holešová, M. 2018. Columnar Entasis In Vignola´ S and Other Renaissance Works. Civil and Environmental Engineering, 14(2): 132-137. DOI: 10.2478/cee-2018-0017.
Houston, R. 2016. Augustus and Julio-Claudian. Retrieved from https://silo.tips/download/augustus-and-the-julio- claudians. Assessed on 03 – 02 – 2022
Hussain, W. 2018. The Common Good. Stanford Encyclopaedia Of Philosophy. Retrieved From https://Plato.Stanford.Edu/Entries/Common-Good/.
Josephus, F. 2021. Antiquity of the Jews. Retrieved June 23, 2022 from https://penelope.uchicago.edu/josephus/ant-1.html Retrieved date?
Keener, C. S. 1993. IVP Bible Background Commentary New Testament. InterVarsity Press.
Livy, T. 1905. History of Rome. (Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts). J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., London.
Locatelli, G., Mariani, G., Sainati, T. and Greco, M. 2016. Corruption in Public Projects and megaprojects: There is an Elephant in the room. International Journal of Project Management, 35: 252 – 268.
Milliken, E. K. 1958. The Roman People. George G. Harrap and Co. Ltd. London.
Newman, W. E. and Vassigh, S. 2014. What would Vitruvius Do? Re Thinking Architecture Education for the 21st Century University. ARCC/EAAE 2014 | Beyond Architecture: New Intersections & Connections Re-Disciplining: The Rise, Fall and Reformation of the Disciplines. History, Theory, Historiography, and Future Studies.
Olawale, M. 2021. Ikoyi Building Collapse: Structural engineer explains withdrawal, unsure of other blocks. Retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2021/12/ikoyi-building-collapse- `structural-engineer-explains-withdrawal-unsure-of-other-blocks/
Oleson, J. P. 2004 The ROMACONS Project: a Contribution to the Historical and Engineering Analysis of Hydraulic Concretein Roman Maritime Structures. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 33(2):199–229 doi: 10.1111/j.1095-9270.2004.00020.x
Seutoniuos, T. C. 2021. The Lives of the Caesar. Retrieved from https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/augustus. html Retrieved May 25, 2022 from https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/suetonius/12caesars/augustus*.html
Simm, K. 2011. The concepts of common good and public interest: from Plato to biobanking. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 20(4): 554-562
Strickland, M. H. (2010). Roman Building Materials, Construction Methods, and Architecture: The Identity Of An Empire. MA Thesis Clemson University. htts://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/909
Tacitus, T. 2021. Annals. Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb. Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Tacitus/annals.html Retrieved November 21, 2022 from http://classics.mit.edu/Tacitus/annals.html
Taylor, W. M. and Lavine, M. P. 2023. Philosophy and Architecture. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, University of Western Australia.iep.utm.edu/philosophy.
Thiemann, L., Gerzer, S. and Kilian R. 2010. Vitruvius and antique techniques of Plaster work and painting. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference HMC2010 and RILEM TC 203-RHM Final Workshop 22-24 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic
Vitruvius, M. P. 1914. Ten Books on Architecture. Cambridge, UK: Harvard, University Press.