• Yusuf Babangida Attahiru Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Azman Mohamed Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • K. Paramesvaran Kamunting Premix Plant Sdn Bhd, Kamunting Industrial Estate, 34600 Kamunting, Perak, Malaysia.
  • Raimi Mohd Ramli UMLAB Civil Engineering Laboratory Sdn Bhd, Taman Universiti, 81300 Skudai, Johor Darul Ta'zim, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Nurul Hidayah Mohd Kamaruddin Advanced Pavement Material Focus Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Abubakar Ibrahim Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, 1144, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
  • Kabiru Dangoma Umar Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, 1034, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
  • Jabir Allami Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, 1144, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
  • Bashir Yahaya Sanda Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.




Neutral carbon waste, Bio-oil waste, WMA concrete, WMA technologies, Warm mix additives


Waste materials can be used to produce cement concrete, asphalt concrete, block concrete, and other construction materials. This has been known for more than 30 years in the field of civil engineering. To allay ecological concerns, several nations are currently researching the reprocessing of neutral carbon and bio-oil wastes (NC&BoWs). These wastes are sustainable, but because of their large volume of landfill disposal, which has detrimental effects on the ecosystem and its inhabitants, they are starting to become quite worried for the ecosystem. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive review of the use of NC&BoWs on warm mix asphalt (WMA) concrete to lessen our worries about the environment. Numerous investigations have been conducted to enhance various WMA technologies. These three technologies such as foaming, chemical, and organic enhance the structural behavior of WMA concrete and lower the viscosity of the asphalt binder. A bibliometric analysis shows that only 26 out of the 168 articles related to this study were published by Scopus between 2012 and 2023. Full-length articles accounted for 100.0% of Scopus publications, and it seems that not a single review article was accepted and published by Scopus. Based on the subject area, the fields of engineering, materials sciences, and physics and astronomy published 50.0%, 43.5%, and 6.5% of the Scopus articles, respectively. Consequently, the findings suggested that further reviews are necessary to verify NC&BoWs' ongoing efficacy in WMA concrete


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How to Cite

A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE USE OF NEUTRAL CARBON AND BIO-OIL WASTES ON WARM MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE. (2024). Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 36(1), 41-61. https://doi.org/10.11113/mjce.v36.21715