Refining E-government Readiness Index by Cloud Computing


  • Fathey Mohammed Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Othman Ibrahim Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



E-government, cloud computing, e-readiness assessment, e-government readiness index


Modern ICT heavily impacts and shapes the way government functions. Therefore, the aim of e-government attempts should be using all invented forms of ICT to improve basic duties of government and deliver more interactive services to citizens and businesses. However, an effective e-government program requires information about the readiness of public-sector organizations, in terms of regulatory frameworks, and organizational and technical infrastructures, as well as information about the stakeholders and their demand for e-government. Therefore, measuring e-readiness is vital to adopt e-government successfully. For that reason, several e-readiness assessment models have been developed to help assess the opportunities and challenges facing e-government programs. On the other hand, recently ICT innovation along with Cloud Computing presents significant opportunity for governments to provide effective e-government services. This paper revisits the existing e-government readiness indices to show the main common indicators. Then, it investigates the main drivers of the changes between the various versions of one index. Finally, this paper proposes a preliminary framework to refine indexes’ indicators according to the characteristics of the Cloud Computing.


Author Biography

  • Fathey Mohammed, Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

    PhD Stutent, Information Systems Department, Faculty of Computing


UNDESA. 2003. UN Global E-government Survey 2003. Available:

R. Heek. 2006. Implementing and Managing E-Government. Vistaar Publication.

Pudjianto, B. & Hangjung, Z. 2009. Factors Affecting E-government Assimilation in Developing Countries. In: 4th Communication Policy Research, South Conference, Negombo, Sri Lanka.

Gichoya, D. 2005. Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of ICT Projects in Government. The Electronic Journal of e-Government. 3: 175–184.

Shin, S. 2008. Implementing E-Government in Developing Countries: Its Unique and Common Success Factors. American Political Science Association.

Al-Sobhi, F., Kamal, M. & Weerakkody, V. 2009. Current State of E-Services in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Intermediaries in Facilitating Government Services in Madinah City. Proceedings of the European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Izmir.

Al-Sobhi, F. & Weerakkody, V. 2010. The Role of Intermediaries in Facilitating E-Government Diffusion in Saudi Arabia. European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

J. Gant, 2008. Electronic Government for Developing Countries. International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Geneva.

Bui, T. X., S. Sankaran & I. M. Sebastian. 2003. A Framework for Measuring National E-Readiness. International Journal of Electronic Business. 1: 3–22.

Ghavamifar, A., L. Beig & G. Montazer. 2008. The Comparison of Different E-Readiness Assessment Tools. In Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications, 2008. ICTTA 2008. 3rd International Conference on, IEEE. 1–5.

Youssef, A. E. 2012. Exploring Cloud Computing Services and Applications. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 3.

Docktor, R. 2002. E-readiness in 2002: Defining and Achieving Your 6-Fitness Goals. Institute for Public-Private Partnerships Inc.

Zheng, L. & Y. Jiang. 2011. Assessing E-government Readiness of Local Governments in China: Developing a Bottom-up Approach. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, 91-96. ACM.

Sachs, J. D. 2000. Readiness for the Networked World: A Guide for Developing Countries. Cambridge, MA: Center for International Development, Harvard University.

EIU. 2007. The 2007 e-readiness rankings: Raising the bar, A white paper from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Available:

WEC. 2013. The Global Information Technology Report 2013. World Economic Forum. Available:

Ojo, A., T. Janowski & E. Estevez. 2005. Determining Progress Towards e-Government-What are the Core Indicators? 5th European Conference on e-Government, Antwerpen. 313–322.

UNDESA. 2012. The United Nations e-Government Survey: E-Government for the People. Available:

ITU. 2012. Measuring the Information Society. Available:

ITU. 2009. e-Government Implementation Toolkit, introduction: e-Government Readiness Assessment Framework. Available:

E. I. Unit, 2010. Digital economy rankings 2010: Beyond e-readiness, A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Available:

Al-Omari, A. & H. Al-Omari. 2006. E-government Readiness Assessment Model. Journal of Computer Science. 2: 841–845.

Janssen, D., S. Rotthier & K. Snijkers. 2004. If you Measure it They Will Score: An Assessment of international eGovernment benchmarking. Information Polity. 9: 121–130.

Shareef, M., A. Ojo & T. Janowski. 2008. A Readiness Assessment Framework for E-Government Planning: Design and Application. In Proceedings of the 2nd international Conference on theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ACM. 403–410.

Rahman, H. 2007. E-Government Readiness: From the Design Table to the Grass Roots. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance. ACM. 225–232.

Ismail, H. A. A. 2008. Citizens' Readiness for E-Government in Developing Countries. Middlesex University.

E. I. Unit, 2001. The Economist Intelligence Unit/Pyramid Research e-readiness Rankings. Retrieved June. 8.

E. I. Unit, 2002. The Economist Intelligence Unit e-readiness Rankings, July 2002. Economist Intelligence Unit.

E. I. Unit, 2003. The 2003 e-readiness Rankings. Economist Intelligence Unit.

E. I. Unit, 2004. IBM Corporation. 2004. Scandinavia Consolidates Lead in Fifth Annual Economist Intelligence Unit e-readiness rankings.

E. I. Unit, 2005. The 2005 e-readiness rankings, Economist Intelligence Unit.

E. I. Unit, 2006. The 2006 E-readiness Rankings: Raising the Bar. Economist Intelligence Unit.

E. I. Unit, 2007. The 2007 e-readiness Rankings: A White Paper. Economist Intelligence Unit.

E. I. Unit, 2008. E-readiness Rankings 2008, Maintaining Momentum: A White Paper from the Economist Intelligence Unit. London, United Kingdom: Economist Intelligence Unit and The IBM Institute.

E. I. Unit, 2009. E-readiness Rankings 2009: The Usage Imperative. The Economist. A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit written in cooperation with the IBM Institute for Business Value.

Ishaq, Q. & M. E. Rana Towards Cloud-based e-Government Solutions for Developing Countries: Critical Success Factors and Expected Benefits.

Tripathi, A. & B. Parihar. 2011. E-governance Challenges and Cloud Benefits. In Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE. 351–354.

Pokharel. M. & J. S. Park. 2009. Cloud Computing: Future Solution for e-governance. In Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic governance, ACM. 409–410.

Kurdi, R., A. Taleb-Bendiab, M. Randles & M. Taylor. 2011. E-Government Information Systems and Cloud Computing (Readiness and Analysis). In Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE), IEEE. 404–409.

Craig, R., J. Frazier, N. Jacknis, S. Murphy, C. Purcell, P. Spencer & J. Stanley. 2009. Cloud Computing in the Public Sector: Public Manager’s Guide to Evaluating and Adopting Cloud Computing. White Paper. Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group. Availble:‎.

Mell, P. & T. Grance. 2011. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (draft). NIST Special Publication. 800: 145.

Rastogi, A. .2010. A model Based Approach to Implement Cloud Computing in e-Governance. International Journal of Computer Applications. 9: 15–18.

Brian, H., T. Brunschwiler, H. Dill, H. Christ, B. Falsafi, M. Fischer, S. G. Grivas, C. Giovanoli, R. E. Gisi & R. Gutmann. 2008. Cloud Computing. Communications of the ACM. 51: 9–11.

Bhardwaj, S., L. Jain & S. Jain. 2010. Cloud Computing: A Study of Infrastructure as aA Service (IAAS). International Journal of Engineering and Information Technology. 2: 60–63.

Galal-edeen, A. a. 2012. Proposed Development Model of e-Government to Appropriate Cloud Computing. International Journal of Reviews in Computing. 9: 7.

ATSE. 2010. Cloud Computing: Opportunities and Challenges for Australia, report of a study by the Australian academy of Technological sciences and engineering (ATSE). Availble:

Sahu, B. L. & R. Tiwari. 2012. A Comprehensive Study on Cloud Computing. International Journal. 2.

Kundra, V. 2010. State of Public Sector Cloud Computing. Washington. DC: CIO Council.

Harris, J. G. & A. E. Alter. 2010. Cloudrise: Rewards and Risks at the Dawn of Cloud Computing.






Science and Engineering

How to Cite

Refining E-government Readiness Index by Cloud Computing. (2013). Jurnal Teknologi, 65(1).