• Noor Azura Zakaria Department of Computer Science, lnternational Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), 53100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Suhaimi Ibrahim Advanced Informatics School (AIS), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin Advanced Informatics School (AIS), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Software process tailoring, value-based factors, value-based software engineering


Software process tailoring is an approach to customise the existing software development process or model that able to meet the software project’s needs. Software development project is unique and identical from one and another whereby the practices and decision should not be equally treated. Software process tailoring requires knowledge and intuition to make decision such as factors involved in the software project, selection of the suitable software process elements and tailoring operations. Software process tailoring practices focusing more on project characteristics factors and employs ad hoc approach in making the decision. In the absent of value-based factors and systematic method in software process tailoring, subjectivity is embedded in decision making process and the software development project suffers from satisfying the stakeholder. This study presents an integrated approach to formulate a Value-Based Software Process Tailoring Framework (VBSPTF) to overcome this problem. The framework is a combination of value-based factors, MoSCoW rules, Quality Functional Deployment (QFD), Activity-Based Costing (ABC), Priority Map, Value Index and Value Graph. This study perhaps can contribute to the software process tailoring practitioners to be exposed with a systematic method to conduct software process tailoring as well as improving the practices and reducing subjectivity in decision making.


Magdaleno, A. M., 2010. An Optimization-Based Approach To Software Development Process Tailoring. Second International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering (SSBSE), 2010. Benevento. 40-43.

Hurtado, J. A. and Bastarrica, C., 2009. Process Model Tailoring As A Mean For Process Knowledge Reuse. 2nd Workshop on Knowledge Reuse, KREUSE, Falls Church, Virginia, USA.

Kang, D., Song, I.-G., Park, S., Bae, D.-H., Kim, H.-K., and Lee, N., 2008. A Case Retrieval Method For Knowledge-Based Software Process Tailoring Using Structural Similarity. 15th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, 2008. APSEC'08. 51-58.

Xu, P. and Ramesh, B. 2007. Software Process Tailoring: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Management Information Systems. 24: 293-328

Cameron, J. 2002.Configurable Development Processes. Communications of the ACM. 45: 72-77

Clarke, P. and O’Connor, R. V. 2012. The Situational Factors That Affect The Software Development Process: Towards A Comprehensive Reference Framework. Information and Software Technology. 54: 433-447

Jeners, S., Clarke, P., O’Connor, R. V., Buglione, L., and Lepmets, M. 2013. Harmonizing Software Development Processes with Software Development Settings–A Systematic Approach. Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement. Springer. 167-178.

Keenan, F. 2004. Agile Process Tailoring And Problem Analysis (APTLY). Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Software Engineering, 2004. ICSE 2004 Scotland, United Kingdom. 45-47.

Rui, H., Hao, W., and Zhiqing, L. 2009. A Software Process Tailoring Approach Using a Unified Lifecycle Template. International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering, 2009. CiSE 2009. Wuhan, China, 1-7.

Xu, P. and Ramesh, B. 2008. Using Process Tailoring To Manage Software Development Challenges. IT Professional. 10: 39-45

Heindl, M. and Biffl, S. 2005. A Case Study On Value-Based Requirements Tracing. Proceedings Of The 10th European Software Engineering Conference Held Jointly With 13th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium On Foundations Of Software Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal. 60-69.

Xu, P. 2005. Knowledge Support In Software Process Tailoring. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2005. HICSS'05. Waikoloa, Hawaii. 87c-87c.

Hanssen, G. K., Westerheim, H., and Bjørnson, F. O. 2005. Tailoring RUP to a defined Project Type: A Case Study. Product Focused Software Process Improvement. Springer. 314-327.

Ibarguengoitia, G., Salazar, J., Ramirez, A., and Sánchez, M. 2003. A Procedure For Customizing A Software Process.

Westerheim, H. and Hanssen, G. K. 2005. The Introduction And Use Of A Tailored Unified Process-A Case Study. 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005. Porto, Portugal. 196-203.

Demirörs, O., Yildiz, A., Demirörs, E., and Tarhan, A. 2000. Tailoring ISO/IEC 12207 For Instructional Software Development. EUROMICRO Conference. 2300-2300.

Armbrust, O., Ebell, J., Hammerschall, U., Münch, J., and Thoma, D. 2008. Experiences And Results From Tailoring And Deploying A Large Process Standard In A Company. Software Process: Improvement and Practice. 13: 301-309

Hikichi, K., Fushida, K., Iida, H., and Matsumoto, K. i. 2006. A Software Process Tailoring System Focusing To Quantitative Management Plans. Product-Focused Software Process Improvement. Springer. 441-446.

Yoon, I.-C., Min, S.-Y., and Bae, D.-H. 2001. Tailoring And Verifying Software Process. Software Engineering Conference, 2001. APSEC 2001. Eighth Asia-Pacific. 202-209.

Park, S.-H. and Bae, D.-H. 2013. Tailoring A Large-Sized Software Process Using Process Slicing And Case-Based Reasoning Technique. IET Software. 7: 47-55

Pereira, E. B., Bastos, R. M., and Oliveira, T. C. 2007. A Systematic Approach To Process Tailoring. International Conference on Systems Engineering and Modeling, 2007. ICSEM'07. 71-78.

Henninger, S. and Baumgarten, K. 2001. A Case-Based Approach To Tailoring Software Processes. Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development. Springer. 249-262.

Xu, P. and Ramesh, B. 2003. A Tool For The Capture And Use Of Process Knowledge In Process Tailoring. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2003. Waikoloa, Hawaii, 7.

Hurtado Alegría, J. A., Bastarrica, M. C., Quispe, A., and Ochoa, S. F. 2014. MDE-based Process Tailoring Strategy. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process. 26: 386-403

Li, J. and Mao, M. 2009. A Case Study on Tailoring Software Process for Characteristics Based on RUP, in International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering, 2009. CiSE 2009. 1-5.

Boehm, B. 2003. Value-based Software Engineering: Reinventing. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes. 28: 3.

Boehm, B. and Sullivan, K. 2000. Software Economics: A Roadmap. Proceedings of the conference on The future of Software Engineering. Limerick, Ireland. 319-343.

Suma, V., Shubhamangala, B., and Manjunatha Rao, L. 2013. Customization Of Quality Models In Software Projects To Enhance The Business Value. Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2013 IEEE 3rd International. 1479-1485.

Warburton, R. D. 2011. A Time-Dependent Earned Value Model For Software Projects. International Journal of Project Management. 29: 1082-1090

Müller, M. M. and Padberg, F. 2003. On The Economic Evaluation Of XP Projects. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes. 168-177.

Li, J., Ma, Z., and Dong, H. 2008. Monitoring Software Projects With Earned Value Analysis And Use Case Point. Computer and Information Science, 2008. ICIS 08. Seventh IEEE/ACIS International Conference on. 475-480.

Hanna, R. A. 2009. Earned Value Management Software Projects. Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, 2009. SMC-IT 2009. 297-304.

Wagner, K. W. and Durr, W. 2006. A Five-Step Method For Value-Based Planning And Monitoring Of Systems Engineering Projects. 32nd EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2006. SEAA'06. Cavtat/Dubrovnik (Croatia). 282-290.

Kim, C.-K., Lee, D. H., Ko, I.-Y., and Baik, J. 2007. A Lightweight Value-Based Software Architecture Evaluation. Eighth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, 2007. SNPD 2007. 646-649.

Cabrero, D., Garzas, J., and Piattini, M. 2007. Choosing the Best Design Strategy from Requirements. A Value-Based Approach. IEEE International Conference on Exploring Quantifiable IT Yields, 2007. EQUITY'07. Washington DC, USA. 87-94.

Azar, J., Smith, R. K., and Cordes, D. 2007.Value-oriented Requirements Prioritization In A Small Development Organization. Software, IEEE. 24: 32-37.

Zakaria, N. A., Ibrahim, S., and Mahrin, M. N. 2015. A Survey of Value-Based Factors in Software Development. Advanced Science Letters. 21: 3351-3354.

Zakaria, N. A., Ibrahim, S., and Mahrin, M. N. 2015. Examining Value-Based Factors in Software Development: A Survey Study in Malaysian Public Sector. Presented at the 24th Australasian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC 2015), Adelaide, Australia.

Vestola, M. 2010.A Comparison of Nine Basic Techniques for Requirements Prioritization. Helsinki University of Technology.

Stapleton, J. 1997. DSDM, Dynamic Systems Development Method: The Method In Practice. Cambridge University Press

Hatton, S. 2008. Choosing The Right Prioritisation Method. 19th Australian Conference on Software Engineering, 2008. ASWEC 2008. Australia. 517-526.

Vinay, S., Aithal, S., and Sudhakara, G. 2013. A Quantitative Approach Using Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering Methodology And Analytic Hierarchy Process In Selecting The Best Alternative. Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Computing. 441-454.

Cohen, L. and Cohen, L. 1995. Quality Function Deployment: How To Make QFD Work For You. Addison-Wesley Reading, MA.

Ríos-Manríquez, M., Colomina, C. I. M., and Pastor, M. L. R.-V. 2014. Is The Activity Based Costing System A Viable Instrument For Small And Medium Enterprises? The Case Of Mexico. Estudios Gerenciales. 30: 220-232.

Gunasekaran, A., McNeil, R., and Singh, D. 2000. Activity-based Management In A Small Company: A Case Study. Production Planning & Control. 11: 391-399.

De Marle, D. J. 1992. Value Measurment, In Value: Its Measurement, Design, And Management. M. L. Shillito and D. J. De Marle, Eds. ed New York: John Wiley & Sons.




How to Cite