• Jeng Yih Law Section of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Chemical & Bioengineering Technology, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
  • Abdul Wahab Mohammad Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia




Forward osmosis, hybrid system configuration, water, osmotic pressure


Forward osmosis (FO) technology has received increasing attention from many researchers since the last decade. It is an osmotically driven membrane process in which water migrates across a semi-permeable membrane from a lower osmotic pressure feed solution to a higher osmotic pressure draw solution. FO technology is often applied as a hybrid system rather than a standalone process. The purpose of this paper is to review the different types of hybrid system configurations employing FO technology for the production of potable/pure water. The integration of FO technology with other processes which include reverse osmosis, crystallisation, membrane bioreactor, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis are presented and described in-depth. With the flourishing of various FO hybrid system configurations, it is believed that FO technology will play a vital role in the water processing industry.  


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