• Abdulganiyu Umar Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Northwest University, P.M.B 3220, Kano, Nigeria
  • Mohd Marsin Sanagi Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Ahmedy Abu Naim Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Wan Nazihah Wan Ibrahim Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Aemi Syazwani Abdul Keyon Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Chitin, grafting, polystyrene-modified chitin, orange G, adsorption


In this work, polystyrene modified-chitin was evaluated for the first time as adsorbent for the removal of Orange G from aqueous solutions. Its absorption capacity was compared to that of chitin. BET and FESEM results showed that the polystyrene-modified chitin has higher surface area (12.47 m2/g) compared to chitin (4.92 m²/g). Batch adsorption experiments on the removal of Orange G from aqueous solutions were conducted. The results showed that the polystyrene-modified chitin has improved adsorption capacity compared to chitin. The maximum adsorption of orange G by chitin occurred at pH 2, while that of the polystyrene-modified chitin occurred at pH 6. At an initial concentration of 20 mg/L, the percentages of dye removal were 65.16% and 81.20% for raw chitin (RCH) and polystyrene-modified chitin (MCH), respectively. Kinetics studies for the adsorbents were conducted using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The pseudo-first-order model gives poor fittings for both adsorbents, with low coefficients of determination (R2). The pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data well, with R2 close to unity. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to interpret the adsorption isotherms. It was found that Langmuir isotherm conformed better than Freundlich model in the adsorption of selected dye on chitin and the polystyrene-modified chitin, with R2 nearly unity.


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