• Abdulkarim Ali Deba Science Education Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248 Bauchi, Nigeria
  • Nor Azimah Mohd Zain Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Madihah Salleh Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Residual palm oil, Recovery, OPMF, Fungi, Fermentation


Production of palm oil from palm oil mill industries has been facing a serious challenge of overcoming the oil loss as a result of the mechanical extraction process limitations, consequently, leading to economic and environmental impacts. Efforts were made to overcome this impasse by mechanical process, dissolve air flotation, solvent extraction and enzymatic treatment. Most of these methods applied are faced with a somewhat drawbacks. In this review, the various methods of residual palm oil recovery were discussed, while presenting a better method that could allow for optimum recovery with less or no environmental impact via microbial means in a solid state process. Biological process in a solid state condition with fungi such as the white rot basidiomycetes is considered the best for future application, due to the natural availability of the fungi and high degrading capability of lignocellulose biomass. This would significantly be of benefit in terms of abating the huge oil palm mesocarp fiber deposition and aid in meeting the environmental requirement of waste consumption from the source. 


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