• Al-Amin Danladi Bello Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Ridza Mohd Haniffah Centre for Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment (RISE), 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Noor Baharim Hashim Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Khairul Mohammad Anuar National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia



Tropical-climate, dynamic model, Skudai River watershed, total runoff, actual evapotranspiration


The response of a watershed due to changes in its physical environment might result in floods, river erosions and siltations, subsequently affecting humans and biotas. Evaluating land-use changes is crucial for better assessment of hydrological conditions in a watershed system. The remote sensing imagery, field data collection, and land change modelling were used to produce the land-use maps of different spatiotemporal scale from 1989 to 2039. The generated maps are integrated into Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model, to evaluate the hydrological changes in Skudai River watershed in Malaysia. Total runoff is expected to account for 57% of the rainfall influx by 2039, a change of 2% from 1989 land-use, an indication of the low response of runoff to change in land-use. As built-up land increase by 3.39 %, the average streamflow will increase by 0.05 m3/s. It will further reduce actual evapotranspiration (AET) by 0.39%, groundwater by 0.34% and change in storage by 0.38%. The sensitivity analysis of the hydrological elements to the land-use changes indicates that AET being the most sensitive then change in storage, and total runoff showing the lowest sensitivity. The result of the study provides information on the long-term impact of land-use on the hydrology of the tropical watershed, and it can be a useful tool in the planning and management of a watershed in a different perspective.

Author Biographies

Al-Amin Danladi Bello, Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

PHD research student

Mohd Ridza Mohd Haniffah, Centre for Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment (RISE), 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia


Noor Baharim Hashim, Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia


Khairul Mohammad Anuar, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia



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