• Noor Suraya Romali Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Malaysia
  • Zulkifli Yusop Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Sulaiman Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Malaysia
  • Zulhilmi Ismail Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia




Flood risk assessment, flood damage assessment, flood damage function curve, synthetic method, developing country


Flood damage assessment is important in flood risk management for the assessment of flood vulnerability, development of flood risk map and flood management financial appraisal. In Malaysia, there is a lack of studies on flood damages estimation. In addition, the needed data for the assessment of flood damages is scarce. This review identified the approaches and problems in flood damage assessment. For Malaysia, the combination of four elements namely; flood characteristics (flood depth and flood duration), characteristic of exposed elements, value of exposed element and flood damage function curve are recommended. The scarcity of data for developing flood damage curve could partly be overcome by applying synthetic method to generate additional data from the existing flood damage data.


Li, Q., Zhou, J., Liu, D., and Jiang, X. 2012. Research on Flood Risk Analysis and Evaluation Method Based on Variable Fuzzy Sets and Information Diffusion. Safety Science. 50(5): 1275-1283. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.01.007.

Ren, M., Wang, B., Liang, Q., and Fu, G. 2010. Classified Real-Time Flood Forecasting by Coupling Fuzzy Clustering and Neural Network. International Journal of Sediment Research. 25(2): 134-148. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6279(10)60033-9.

Chang, L., Lin, C., and Su, M. 2008. Application of Geographic Weighted Regression to Establish Flood-Damage Functions Reflecting Spatial Variation. Water SA. 34(2): 209-216.

Jonkman, S. N. 2005. Global Perspectives on Loss of Human Life Caused by Floods. Natural Hazards. 34(2): 151-175. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-004-8891-3.

Asian Reduction Disaster Centre. 2011. Country Report of Malaysia.

D/iya, S. G., BarzaniGasim, M., Toriman, M. E., and Abdullahi, M. G. 2014. FLOODS IN MALAYSIA: Historial Reviews, Causes, Effects and Mitigations Approach. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovations. 2(4): 59-65.

Kourgialas, N. N., and Karatzas, G. P. 2013. A Hydro-Economic Modelling Framework for Flood Damage Estimation and the Role of Riparian Vegetation. Hydrological Processes. 27(4): 515-531. http://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9256.

Notaro, V., De Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C. M., La Loggia, G., Puleo, V., and Freni, G. 2014. The Effect of Damage Functions on Urban Flood Damage Appraisal. Procedia Engineering. 70: 1251-1260. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.02.138.

Elias, Z., Hamin, Z., and Othman, M. B. 2013. Sustainable Management of Flood Risks in Malaysia: Some Lessons from the Legislation in England and Wales. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 105: 491-497. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.052.

Heidari, A. 2009. Structural Master Plan of Flood Mitigation Measures. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. 9(1): 61-75. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-61-2009.

Sindhu, K. and Durga Rao, K.H.V. 2016. Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Flood Damage Mitigation in Brahmani–Baitarani River Basin, India. Geocarto International. 6049(May): 1-13. http://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2016.1178818.

Merz, B., Kreibich, H., Schwarze, R., and Thieken, A. 2010. Review Article “Assessment of Economic Flood Damage.†Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 10(8): 1697-1724. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-1697-2010.

De Moel, H., and Aerts, J. C. J. H. 2011. Effect of Uncertainty in Land Use, Damage Models and Inundation Depth on Flood Damage Estimates. Natural Hazards. 58(1): 407-425. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9675-6.

Ward, P. J., Moel, H. De, and Aerts, J. C. J. H. 2011a. How Are Flood Risk Estimates Affected by the Choice of Return-Periods? Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 3181-3195. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-11-3181-2011.

De Moel, H., Van Alphen, J., and Aerts, J. C. J. H. 2009. Flood Maps in Europe - Methods, Availability and Use. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. 9(2): 289-301. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-289-2009.

Chan, N. W. 2012. Impacts of Disasters and Disasters Risk Management In Malaysia: The Case of Floods. Economic and Welfare Impacts of Disasters in East Asia and Policy Responses. (December): 503-551. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55022-8.

Liu, P. S., and Chan N. W. 2003. The Malaysian Flood Hazard Management Program. International Journal of Emergency Management. 1(3): 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEM.2003.003303.

Chan, N. W. 2007. Institutional arrangements for Flood Hazard Management in Malaysia: An Evaluation Using the Criteria Approach. Disasters. 21(3): 206-222.

Oliveri, E., and Santoro, M. 2000. Estimation of Urban Structural Flood Damages : The Case Study of Palermo. Urban Water 2. 2(2000): 223-234.

Jonkman, S. N., Brinkhuis-Jak, M., and Kok, M. 2004. Cost Benefit Analysis and Flood Damage Mitigation in the Netherlands. Heron. 49(1): 95-111.

Andrews, T., Billen, G., Kim, H., Lui, A., Pollack, C., Simpson, L., Smith, D., Underhill, S., and Whittle, D. 2008. The Insurance of Flood Risks. In Institute of Australia 16th General Insurance Seminar. 9-12 November 2008, Coolum, Australia.

Penning-Rowsell and Chatterton. 1979. The Benefits of Flood Alleviation: A Manual of Assessment Techniques. Gower Technical Press, UK.

Appelbaum, S. J. 1985. Determination of Urban Flood Damages. Water Resources Planning Management. 269-283.

Mcbean, B. E. A., Gorrie, J., Fortin, M., Ding, J., and Mouiton, R. 1989. Flood Depth-Damage Curves by Interview Survey. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 114(6): 613-634.

Smith, D. 1981. Assessment of Urban Flood Damage. In Proceedings of Flood Plain Management Conference. Australian Water Council, Canberra, Australia. 145-180.

Dutta, D., Herath, S., and Musiake, K. 2003. A Mathematical Model for Flood Loss Estimation. Journal of Hydrology. 277(1-2): 24-49. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00084-2.

Jonkman, S. N., Bo, M., Kok, M., and Bernardini, P. 2008. Integrated Hydrodynamic and Economic Modelling of Flood Damage in the Netherlands. Ecological Economics. 66 (2008): 77-90. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.12.022.

Luino, F., Cirio, C. G., Biddoccu, M., Agangi, A., Giulietto, W., Godone, F., and Nigrelli, G. 2009. Application of a Model to the Evaluation of Flood Damage. GeoInformatica. 13(3): 339-353. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10707-008-0070-3.

Kreibich, H., Seifert, I., Merz, B., and Thieken, A. H. 2010. Development of FLEMOcs – a New Model for the Estimation of Flood Losses in the Commercial Sector. Hydrological Sciences Journal. 55(8): 1302-1314. http://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2010.529815.

Yu, J. J., Qin, X. S., and Larsen, O. 2013. Joint Monte Carlo and Possibilistic Simulation for Food Damage Assessment. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess. 27: 725-735. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-012-0635-4.

Pistrika, A., Tsakiris, G., and Nalbantis, I. 2014. Flood Depth-Damage Functions for Built Environment. Environ. Process. 1: 553-572. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-014-0038-2.

Velasco, M., Cabello, À., and Russo, B. 2015. Flood Damage Assessment in Urban Areas . Application to the Raval District of Barcelona using Synthetic Depth Damage Curves. Urban Water Journal. (May 2015): 37–41. http://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2014.994005.

Vozinaki, A. E. K., Karatzas, G. P., Sibetheros, I. A., and Varouchakis, E. A. 2015. An Agricultural Flash Flood Loss Estimation Methodology: The Case Study of the Koiliaris Basin (Greece), February 2003 flood. Natural Hazards. 79(2): 899–920. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1882-8.

Muradi, N. A. and Abdullah A. F. 2015. Flood Damage Assessment in Agricultural Area in Selangor River Basin. Jurnal Teknologi. 76(15): 111-117.

Tam, T. H., Ibrahim, A. L., Rahman, M. Z. A. and Mazura, Z. 2014. Flood Loss Assessment in Kota Tinggi. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 18(2014): 012120. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/18/1/012120.

Ahamad, M. S., Ali, R., Zakaria, N. A., Ab. Ghani, A., and Chang, C. K. 2011. Flood Loss Assessment of the 2003 Muda River Flood. 3rd International Conference on Managing Rivers in the 21st Century: Sustainable Solutions for Global Crisis of Flooding, Pollution and Water Scarcity. 601-606.

KTA Tenaga Sdn. Bhd. 2003. Flood Damage Assessment of 26 April 2001 Flooding Affecting the Klang Valley and the Preparation of Generalised Procedures and Guidelines for Assessment of Flood Damages. Final Report. Malaysia.

Lee, W. K., and Mohamad, I. N. 2013. Flood Economy Appraisal: An Overview of the Malaysian Scenario. Springerlink, 29-34. Proceeding of the International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2013, Part III. 263-274, 2014.

Suriya, S., Mudgal, B. V., and Nelliyat, P. 2012. Flood Damage Assessment of an Urban Area In Chennai, India, Part I: Methodology. Natural Hazards. 62(2): 149-167. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9985-3.

Okazumi, T. 2014. Uncertainty Estimation and Reduction Measures in the Process of Flood Risk Assessment with Limited Information. Master dissertation. Faculty of the Graduate School of Kyoto University.

Apel, H., Thieken, a. H., Merz, B., and Blöschl, G. 2004. Flood Risk Assessment and Associated Uncertainty. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. 4(2): 295-308. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-4-295-2004.

Apel, H., Merz, B., and Thieken, A. H. 2008. Quantification of Uncertainties in Flood Risk Assessments. International Journal of River Basin Management. 6(2): 149-162. http://doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2008.9635344.

Hudson, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Kreibich, H., Bubeck, P., and Aerts, J. C. J. H. 2014. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Flood Damage Mitigation Measures by the Application of Propensity Score Matching. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions. 2: 1731-1747. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhessd-2-681-2014.

Okazawa, Y., Yeh, P. J., Kanae, S., and Oki, T. 2011. Development of a Global Flood Risk Index Based on Natural and Socio-Economic Factors. Hydrological Sciences Journal. (August 2011): 37–41. http://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2011.583249.

Eleuterio, J. 2012. Flood Risk Analysis : Impact of Uncertainty in Hazard Modelling and Vulnerability Assessments. PhD thesis. University of Strasboug, France.

Apel, H., Thieken, A. H., Merz, B., and Blöschl, G. 2006. A Probabilistic Modelling System for Assessing Flood Risks. Natural Hazards. 38(1-2): 79-100. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-005-8603-7.

Gain, A. K., Mojtahed, V., Biscaro, C., Balbi, S., and Giupponi, C. 2015. An Integrated Approach of Flood Risk Assessment in the Eastern Part of Dhaka City. Natural Hazards. 79(3): 1499-1530. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1911-7.

Lekuthai, A., and Vongvisessomjai, S. 2001. Intangible Flood Damage Quantification. Water Resources Management. 15: 343-362.

Meyer, V., and Messner, F. 2005. National Flood Damage Evaluation Methods - A Review of Applied Methods in Negland, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Germany. FLOODsite, (November).

Messner, F., Penning-rowsell, E., Green, C., Tunstall, S., Veen, A. Van Der, Tapsell, S., and Haase, D. 2007. Evaluating Flood Damages : Guidance and Recommendations on Principles and Methods. FLOODsite Project Deliverable D9.1. Wallingford, UK: Floodsite Consortium.

Cressman, D. R., Fortin, M. H. P., Hensel, M. J., Brubacher, P. H., and McBride, R. A. 1988. Estimation of Cropland Damages Caused by Overland Flooding, Two Case Studies. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 13(3): 15–25. http://doi.org/10.4296/cwrj1303015.

Shrubsole, D., Kreutzwiser, R., Mitchell, B., Dickinson, T., and Joy, D. 1993. the History of Flood Damages in Ontario. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 18(2): 133-143. http://doi.org/10.4296/cwrj1802133.

Smith, D. 1981. Assessment of Urban Flood Damage. In Proceedings of Flood Plain Management Conference, Australian Water Council, Canberra, Australia. 145-180.

UNSW. 1981. Evaluation Methodology of Flood Damage in Australia, Technical Project Report.

Jonge, T. D. E., Kok, M., & Hogeweg, M. 1996. Modelling Floods and Damage Assessment Using GIS. Application of Georaphic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management. Proceedings of the Vienna Conference. 299-306. IAHS Publ, no. 235.

Tezuka, S., Takiguchi, H., Kazama, S., Sato, A., Kawagoe, S., and Sarukkalige, R. 2014. Estimation of the Effects of Climate Change on Flood-Triggered Economic Losses in Japan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 9 (2014): 58-67.

McGrath, H., Stefanakis, E., and Nastev, M. 2015. Sensitivity Analysis of Flood Damage Estimates: A Case Study in Fredericton, New Brunswick. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 14: 1-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.09.003.

Dutta, D., Herath, S., and Musiake, K. 2000. Flood Inundation Simulation in a River Basin Using a Physically Based Distributed Hydrologic Model. Hydrological Processes. 14: 497-519, 7-22.

Oliveri, E., Tucciarelli, T., and La Loggia, G. 1996. Un Modello Per La Simulazione Di Inondazioni In Ambiente Urbano: Applicazione All’alluvione Di Palermo Nel 1931. L’Energia Elettrica. 73(3): 191-199.

De Bruijn, K. M. 2006. Bepalen van schade ten gevolge van overstro- mingen voor verschillende scenario’s en bij verschillende belei-dsopties, WL. Delft Hydraulics, Delft, The Netherlands (in Dutch).

De Moel, H., Asselman, N. E. M., and Aerts, J. C. J. H. 2012. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Coastal Flood Damage Estimates in the West of The Netherlands. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. 12(4): 1045-1058. http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-1045-2012.

Kanchanarat, S. 1989. Estimation of Flood Damage Function for Bangkok and Vicinity. Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.

Thieken, A. H., Müller, M., Kreibich, H., and Merz, B. 2005. Flood Damage and Influencing Factors: New Insights From The August 2002 Flood In Germany. Water Resources Research. 41(12): 1-16. http://doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004177.

Shaw, D. G., Huang, H. and Ho, M. 2005. Modeling Flood Loss and Risk Perception: The Case of Typhoon Nari In Taipei. Proc. 5thAnnu. IIASA-DPRI Meeting on Integrated Disaster Risk Management: Innovations in Science and Policy. Beijing, China.

Tang, J. C. S., Vongvisessomjai, S., and Sahasakmontri, K. 1992. Estimation of Flood Damage Cost for Bangkok. Water Resources Management. 6(1): 47-56. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00872187.

Van der Sande, C. J., de Jong, S. M., and De Roo, A. P. J. 2003. A Segmentation and Classification Approach of IKONOS-2 Imagery for Land Cover Mapping to Assist Flood Risk and Flood Damage Assessment. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 4(3): 217-229. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0303-2434(03)00003-5.

Yi, C., Lee, J., and Shim, M. 2010. GIS-Based Distributed Technique for Assessing Economic Loss from Flood Damage : Pre-Feasibility Study for the Anyang Stream Basin in Korea. Natural Hazards. 55: 251-272. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9524-7.

Kim, S. H., Lee, B. S., Chung, C. H., & Hak, J. 2014. Development of Depth-Damage Function by Investigating Flooded Area with Focusing on Building Damage. Journal of Korea Water Resources Association. 47(8): 717-728.

Kazama, S., Sato, A., and Kawagoe, S. 2009. Evaluating the Cost of Flood Damage Based on Changes in Extreme Rainfall In Japan. Sustainability Science. 4: 61-69.

Mann, C. 2003. Observational Research Methods. Research Design II: Cohort, Cross Sectional and Case-Control Studies. Emergency Medicine Journal. 20: 54-60. http://doi.org/10.1136/emj.20.1.54.

Qi, H., and Altinakar, M. S. 2011. Simulation-Based Decision Support System for Flood Sensing and Census Block Information. Natural Hazards. 59: 1125-1143. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9822-8.

Ward, P. J., Marfai, M. A., Yulianto, F., Hizbaron, D. R., and Aerts, J. C. J. H. 2011b. Coastal Inundation and Damage Exposure Estimation : A Case Study for Jakarta. Natural Hazards. 56: 899-916. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9599-1.

Romali, N.S., Sulaiman, M., Yusop, Z., and Ismail, Z. 2014. Flood Damage Assessment: A Review of Flood Stage-Damage Function Curve. S. H. Abu Bakar et al. (Eds.). ISFRAM 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015. DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-365-1_13.






Science and Engineering

How to Cite

FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT: A REVIEW OF FLOOD DAMAGE ESTIMATION MODEL FOR MALAYSIA. (2018). Jurnal Teknologi, 80(3). https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v80.11189