• Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih Indonesian Center For Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development (BB-Biogen), 16111 Bogor, Indonesia
  • Nesti Fronika Sianipar Research Interest Group Biotechnology, Food Technology Department, Engineering Faculty, Bina Nusantara University, 15325 Tangerang, Indonesia



Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd, Pekalongan accession, gamma ray irradiation, biomass, bioactive compounds


Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd.) is one of the considerable potential Indonesian medicinal plants. There are many origins of rodent tuber plants in Indonesia such as Pekalongan. Increasing genetic diversity of rodent tuber’s Pekalongan accession had been done by using gamma irradiation. Its produced 23 clones of the 7th generation of mutant plants. The focus of this study was on the analysis of biomass and bioactive compounds from those clones using GC-MS. The aim of this study was to determine new bioactive compounds which affect as anticancer in the 7th mutant generation of rodent tuber plant Pekalongan accession. The result showed that 8 mutant clones of rodent tuber had higher biomass than the control. 10 bioactive compounds were detected in the leaves from 7 mutant clones (20-1-1-2-2-3, 20-1-2-2-1-3, 20-1-2-1-2-2, 20-1-2-4-5, 20-1-1-1-3, 20-4-2-1-1-1, 20-1-2-1-2-6) and 7 bioactive compounds in the tubers from 9 mutant clones (20-1-1-2-2-3, 20-1-2-2-1-3, 20-1-2-1-2-2, 20-1-2-4-5, 20-1-1-1-3, 20-4-2-1-1-1, 20-1-2-1-2-6, 20-1-2-2-4-3, 20-1-2-2-3). The bioactive compounds in the mutant clones was 4 times greater than the control. Phytol isomer and eicosane were found as new bioactive compounds in the leaves. 5 new bioactive compounds were found in the tubers for example Hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, octadecadienoic acid, squalene, beta, eicosane and octacosane. Gamma irradiation is an effective technique to increase the huge numbers of bioactive compounds which can be applied as anticancer, antitumor and antimicobial herbal medicine.


Acton, A. Q. 2013. Issues in Biological, Therapies and Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Georgia: Scholarly Editions.

Choon, S. L., Rosemal, H. M. H., Nair, N. K., Majid, M. I. A., Mansor, S. M., Navaratnam, V. 2008. Typhonium Flagelliforme Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and Induces Apoptosis: An Evaluation by the Bioactivity Guided Approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 118: 14-20.

De Stefani, E., Boffetta, P., Ronco, A. L., Deneo-Pellegrini, H., Carzoglio, J. C., Mendilaharsu, M. 2000. Plant Sterols and Risk of Stomach Cancer: A Case-control Study in Uruguay. Nutrition and Cancer. 37: 140-144.

Figueiredo, C. R., Matsuo, A. L., Pereira, F. V., Rabaça, A. N., Farias, C. F., Girola, N., Massaoka, M. H., Azevedo, R. A., Scutti, J. A., Arruda, D. C., Silva, L. P., Rodrigues, E. G., Lago, J. H., Travassos, L. R., Silva, R. M. 2014. Pyrostegia venusta Heptane Extract Containing Saturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Induces Apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 Melanoma Cells and Displays Antitumor Activity in Vivo. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 10(2): S363-76.

Fraile, L., E. Crisci, L. Cordoba, M. A. Navarro, J., Osada, M., Montova. 2012. Immunomodulatory Properties of Beta-sitosterol in Pig Immune Responses. International Immunopharmacology. 13(3): 316-321.

Fukuzawa M, Yamaguchi R, Hide I, Chen Z, Hirai Y, Sugimoto A, Yasuhara T, Nakata Y. 2008. Possible Involvement of Long Chain Fatty Acids in the Spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its Anti-tumor Activity. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 31: 1933-1937.

Gehan, M. A., Hanan, A. E., Hassan, A. H., Okbah, M. A. 2009. Marine Natural Products and Their Potential Applications as Anti-infective Agents. World Sciences Journal. 7: 872-80.

Ghosh, T., Maity, T. K., Singh, J. 2011. Evaluation of Antitumor Activity of Stigmasterol, A Constituent Isolated from Bacopa monnieri Linn Aerial Parts against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Mice. Oriental Pharmacy Experimental Medicine. 11: 41-49.

Gorbunova, V. & Levy, A. A. 1997. Non-homologous DNA End Joining In Plant Cells Isassociated with Deletions and Filler DNA Insertions. Nucleic Acids Research. 25:4650-4657.

Habib, N. A., Wood, C. B., Apostolov, K., Barker, W., Hershman, M. J., Aslam, M., Heinemann, D., Fermor, B., Williamson, R. C., Jenkins, W. E. 1987. Stearic Acid and Carcinogenesis. British Journal of Cancer. 56(4): 455-8.

Harada, H., Yamashita, U., Kurihara, H., Fukushi, E., Kawabata, J. & Kamei, Y. 2002. Antitumor Activity of Palmitic Acid Found as a Selective Cytotoxic Substance in a Marine Red Alga. Anticancer Research. 22: 2587-2590.

Hikmatyar, M. F. Royani, J. I., dan Fasumiati. 2015. Isolasi dan Amplifikasi DNS Keladi Tikus (Thyponium flagelliforme) untuk Identifikasi Keragaman Genetik. 2015. Jurnal Bioteknologi & Biosains Indonesia. 2(2): 42-48.

Hsouna, A. B., Trigui, M., Mansour, R. B., Jarraya, R. M., Damak, M., Jaoua, S. Chemical Composition, Cytotoxicity Effect and Antimicrobial Activity of Ceratonia Siliqua Essential Oil with Preservative Effects Against Listeria Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 148: 66-72.

Jan, S., T. Parween, T. O. Siddiqi, and Mahmooduzzafar. 2013. Effects of Presowing Gamma Irradiation on the Photosynthetic Pigments, Sugar Content and Carbon Gain of Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik.Chil. Journal of Agricultural Research. 73: 345-350.

Lai, K. C., Wan, Y. K., & Tengku-Muhammad, T. S. 2005. Comparison of Cytotoxic between in Vitro and Field Plants of Thyphonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume. Journal of Plant Biology. 48(1): 25-31.

Lakhsmi, P. T. V. & Rajalakshami, Pa. 2011. Identification of Phtyo-components and its Biological Activities of Aloe Vera Through the Gas-chromatography-Spectrofotometry. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2(5): 247-249.

McCann, S. E., Freudenheim, J. L., Marshall, J. R., Graham, S. 2003. Risk of Human Ovarian Cancer is Related to Dietary Intake of Selected Nutrients, Phytochemicals and Food Groups. Journal of Nutrition. 133: 1937-1942.

Mendilaharsu, M., Stefani, E. D., Deneo-Pellegrini, H., Carzoglio, J., Ronco, A. 1998. Phytosterols and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-control Study in Uruguay. Lung Cancer. 21: 37-45.

Mohan, S., Bustamam, A., Ibrahim, S., Al-Zubairi, A., Aspollah, M., Abdullah, R. & Elhassan, M. M. 2011. In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis on CEMss Induced by Linoleic Acid-Rich Fraction from Typhonium flagelliforme Tuber. Evidence-based Compelementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011: 421894.

Nurrochmad, A., Lukitaningsih, E., Meiyanto, E. 2011. Anticancer Activity of Rodent Tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme (lodd.) Blume on Human Breast Cancer T47D Cells. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2: 138-146.

Nurul Syazana, M. S., Halim, A. S., Gan, S. H., Shamsuddin, S. 2011. Antiproliferative Effect of Methanolic Extraction of Tualang Honey on Human Keloid Fibroblasts. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 26(11): 82.

Pejin, B., Kojic, V., Bogdanovic, G. 2014. An Insight into the Cytotoxic Activity of Phytol at in Vitro Conditions. Natural Product Research. 28(22): 2053-2056.

Praveen, K. P., Kumaravel, S., Lalitha, C. 2010. Screening of Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and GC-MS Study of Vitexnegundo. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 4: 191-5.

Rao, C. V., Newmark, H. L., Reddy, B. S. 1998. Chemopreventive Effect of Squalene on Colon Cancer. Carcinogenesis. 19: 287-290.

Rosmala, A. N., Khumaida, and Sukma, D. 2016. Iteration of Leaf Anatomy of Handeuleum (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff) due to Gamma Irradiation. Hayati Journal of Bioscience. 23(3): 138-142.

Song, Y., & Cho, S. K. 2015. Phytol Induces Apoptosis and Ros-mediated Protective Autophagy in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Ags Cells. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry. 4: 211.

Sriagtala, R., P. D. M. H. Karti., L. Abdullah, Supriyanto, and D. A. Astuti. 2016. Growth, Biomass, and Nutrient Production of Brown Midrib Sorghum Mutant Lines at Different Harvest Times. Journal Home: Nature. 15(6): 524-531.

Sujatha, S., Anand, S., Sangeetha, K. N., Shilpa, K., Lakshmi, J., Balakrishnan, A., Lakshmi, B. S. 2010. Biological Evaluation of (3β)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol as Potent Anti-diabetec Agent in Regulating Glucose Transport using in Vitro Model. International Journal of Diabetes Melitus. 2: 101-109.

Surjana, D., Halliday, G. M., Martin, A. J., Moloney, F. J., Damian, D. L. 2012. Oral Nicotinamide Reduces Actinic Keratoses in Phase II Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 132(5): 1497-1500.

Taheri, S., Abdullah, T. L., Karimi, E., Oskoueian, E., Ebrahimi, M. 2014. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) Leaves. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 15(7): 13077-13090.

Traber, M. G., & Atkinson, J. 2007. Vitamin E, Antioxidant and Nothing More. Free Radical Biology Medicine. 43(1): 4-15.

Von Holtz, R. L., Fink, C. S., Awad, A. B. 1998. Beta-sitosterol Activates the Sphingomyelin Cycle and Induces Apoptosis in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Nutrition and Cancer. 32: 8-12.

Yalindua, A., Sudarsono, A. Setiawan, and H. M. H. Bintoro. 2014. The Aplication of Mutation Induction by Gamma Irradiation on Cultivars Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) from Banggai Islands, Indonesia. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 5(2): 46-54.

Young-Sang, K., Xi-Feng, L., Kyong-Hwa, K., BoMi, R., Se, K. K. 2014. Stigmasterol Isolated from Marine Microalgae Navicula incerta Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells. BMB Reports. 47(8): 433-438.






Science and Engineering

How to Cite