• Mohammad Redzuan Abdul Hanan Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Ahmad Kafrawi Nasution Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau, Pekanbaru, Indonesia
  • Rafaqat Hussain Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Syafiqah Saidin Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5114-3453




Bone cement, calcium phosphate, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), crab shells, bioactive


Crab shells are waste product, rich with calcium compound. Calcium element is often used as a material for bone scaffold due to its bioactive and biodegradation properties. In this study, calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized from crab shells through a wet chemical route. The CaP nanoparticles were then sintered and mixed with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to form a bone cement composite. The mixture was casted in a cylinder shape and it was characterized through ATR-FTIR, XRD, FESEM, contact angle and DSC analyses. The CaP pellet and the CaP/PLGA bone cement composite were then subjected to in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) bioactivity test. The CaP/PLGA bone cement composite was found to have a composition of crystal CaP and PLGA with a tolerable glass transition state, suitable to be used in a physiological environment. The CaP nanoparticles were agglomerated on the 3D interconnected surface of PLGA. The hydrophobicity of the CaP was increased (66.94%) with the addition of PLGA as a binder matrix where this composite has induced the formation of apatite layer. This bioactive property is crucial in fabricating a bone substitute material as it can promotes cell penetration, attachment and proliferation.



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