• Mohamad Amin Jumat School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nor Syahiran Zahidin School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Amirul Aizat Zaini School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nurul Afiqah Fadzil School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Hadi Nur Centre of Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Syafiqah Saidin School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia, IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Institute of Human Centred Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Acalypha indica, polymer hydrogel, wound healing, antibacterial, biocompatible


Acalypha indica (A. indica) possesses antibacterial properties and has capability to accelerate wound healing due to its active therapeutic compounds of flavonoid and alkaloid. The incorporation of A. indica extracts in polymer hydrogels is useful for wound treatment, despite the advancement in synthetic medicines and drugs. In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels with different concentrations of A. indica extract (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg) were fabricated. The ATR-FTIR spectra testified the presence of A. indica in the hydrogels. More enormous spotted agglomerations were visualized on the higher concentrations of A. indica hydrogels. The A. indica hydrogels became less moisture, more hydrophobic and has low water uptake ability compared to the control hydrogel (without A. indica). The antibacterial activities of the hydrogels against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were acted in a dose-dependent manner where higher inhibition zones and higher bacterial retardations were recorded on the hydrogels with higher concentrations of A. indica. The incorporation of A. indica (1.0 - 1.5 mg/mL) has also induced cell viability, cell migration, and proliferation of the human skin fibroblasts. Therefore, optimization of the A. indica hydrogels is crucial in accommodating the bi-functional properties of antibacterial and biocompatibility for wound treatment.


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