• Siti Aishah Mohd Ali Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1421-7089
  • Jalifah Latip Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia




H. sabdariffa var. UKMR-2, elevated [CO2], infrared based fingerprinting, second derivative infrared, 2D-IR synchronous correlation


Rapid methods based on untargeted analysis technique such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can provide much faster and easier solution for food authentication. However, studies on the metabolite content in UKMR-2 calyces using FT-IR spectroscopy has not been reported yet in any previous studies. Thus, the present study was performed to analyze the differences in metabolite content in UKMR-2 calyces under the influences of different [CO2] treatment by applying tri-step infrared based fingerprinting. The UKMR-2 plant cultivation was exposed to ambient [CO2] (400 µmol/mol) and elevated [CO2] (800 µmol/mol) treatment. The UKMR-2 calyx extracts were analysed by conventional infrared (1D-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The 1D-IR spectrum results revealed a similar absorption spectrum in the range of 1900 - 650 cm-1, which suggest similar major metabolites content present in both extracts. For SD-IR spectrum, both treatments clearly showed have more peaks with different shape, position and intensity in the range of 1650 - 1450 cm-1 and 1200 - 950 cm-1, which is likely to have different flavonoid and carbohydrate content in UKMR-2 calyces. The 2D-IR synchronous correlation spectrum in the range of 1000 – 650 cm-1 clearly distinguished the metabolite content in the UKMR-2 calyx extract from different [CO2] treatment. Therefore, this tri-step infrared based fingerprinting has the potential as one of the effective methods to discriminate extract samples with similar infrared fingerprint features and indicate that the metabolite content in UKMR-2 calyces were influenced by different [CO2] treatments.

Author Biographies

Siti Aishah Mohd Ali, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Faculty of Science and Natural Resources

Jalifah Latip, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Centre for Advanced Materials and Renewable Resources


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