• Madihah Md Salleh Biorefinery Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Rohaya Mohd Noor Biorefinery Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Adibah Yahya Biorefinery Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Suraini Abd-Aziz Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology & Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Huszalina Hussin Biorefinery Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia




Lignocellulosic biomass, polyphenolic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, lignin derivatives, extraction


Lignin is the second most abundant component of lignocellulose biomass after cellulose with annual production of 70 million tons. Lignin constitutes between 15 to 40 percent of its dry weight, with varying composition in woody plants such as softwood (18-25%) and hardwood (27-33%), and non-woody plant such as grass (17-24%). The polyphenolic polymer is made up of three monolignols such as coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol that later forms an aromatic structure consisting of guaiacyl, syringyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl. The highly branched three-dimensional structure is both complex and recalcitrant, hence making its utilization difficult. However, the polymeric lignin can be extracted by various methods such as physical, chemical and biological. The extracted lignin has high potential to be converted into monomeric aromatic derivatives that could serve as a building block for chemical synthesis, biomaterials, bio-oils, wastewater treatment and food industry. The conversion involves several methods such as alkaline nitrobenzene, pyrolysis, catalytic technology, combustion, gasification, hydrocracking and oxidation.


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Xu, F., Zhu, T.-T., Rao, Q.-Q., Shui, S.-W., Li, W.-W., He, H.-B., and Yao, R.-S. 2017. Fabrication of Mesoporous Lignin-based Biosorbent from Rice Straw and Its Application for Heavy-Metal-Ion Removal. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 53: 132-140.

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Li, Z., Chen, J., and Ge, Y. 2017. Removal of Lead Ion and Oil Droplet from Aqueous Solution by Lignin-grafted Carbon Nanotubes. Chemical Engineering Journal. 308: 809-817.

Thakur, S., Govender, P. P., Mamo, M. A., Tamulevicius, S., Mishra, Y. K., and Thakur, V. K. 2017. Progress in Lignin Hydrogels and Nanocomposites for Water Purification: Future Perspectives. Vacuum. 146: 342-355.

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How to Cite

Md Salleh, M., Mohd Noor, R. ., Yahya, A. ., Abd-Aziz, S. ., & Hussin, H. . (2023). POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF LIGNIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS – A REVIEW. Jurnal Teknologi, 85(3), 43-59. https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v85.15032



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