• Aida Fazliana Abdul Kadir Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTEM, Jalan Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
  • Hanisah Mupangat Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTEM, Jalan Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
  • Dalila Mat Said Centre of Electrical Energy Systems (CEES), School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia
  • Zulhani Rasin Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTEM, Jalan Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka



Reactive power control, solar PV, droop control, solar PV connected to grid, solar power plant


Reactive power is essential to control the power system's voltage stability as the reactive power is directly proportional to the voltage. Hence, every new solar photovoltaic (PV) plant installed in the grid system must comply with the grid code requirements to ensure that the electricity supply remains stable and reliable. As the more penetration of PV plants, the electrical system will face some challenges related to reactive power control and voltage support. Thus, many countries including Malaysia have updated their grid codes to permit a smooth interaction between these new plants with the grid system. The inverter of PV solar connected to grid system are required to supply rated power output (MW) at point of common coupling (PCC) between the limits of 0.85 power factor lagging, and 0.95 leading follow to the Malaysian Grid Code (MGC) requirement. Hence, this research aims to design a controller for the PV inverter in Matlab/Simulink that able to absorb and supply the reactive power. Then, the comparison will execute between the simulation results and the MGC requirement. However, due to power loss in the system, the PV inverter controller may not comply with the reactive power capability as the MGC requirement. Thus, the PV system need to integrate with the capacitor bank as a reactive power compensator.


E. E. Pompodakis, I. A. Drougakis, and I. S. Lelis, “Photovoltaic systems in low-voltage networks and overvoltage correction with reactive power control,†pp. 1–8, 2015. Available : 10.1049/iet-rpg.2014.0282.

“First Photovoltaic Devices,†PV, accessed December 15, 2015. Available:

L. Krishna, “optimal design of reactive compensation capability of a solar pv plant,†2015.

G. Your and F. Quote, “History of Solar Energy : Who Invented Solar Panels ? Who invented solar panels ? Solar power cell technology invented,†pp. 1–10, 2019.

L. Krishna, “optimal design of reactive compensation capability of a solar pv plant,†2015.

“How reactive power is helpful to maintain a system healthy†jiguparmar, avatar, August, 29th 2011 accessed November 7, 2019,

A. Ellis et al., “Reactive power performance requirements for wind and solar plants,†IEEE Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet., pp. 1–8, 2012. Available: 10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345568

E. Demirok, P. C. González, K. H. B. Frederiksen, D. Sera, P. Rodriguez, and R. Teodorescu, “Local reactive power control methods for overvoltage prevention of distributed solar inverters in low-voltage grids,†IEEE J. Photovoltaics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 174–182, 2011. Available: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2011.2174821.

Nicholas Nixon Opiyo, "Droop Control Methods for PV-Based Mini-Grids with Different Line Resistances and Impedances," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol.9 No.6, 2018. Available: 10.4236/sgre.2018.96007

Wenlei Bain, M. Reza Abedi, Kwang Y. Lee, “Distributed generation system control strategies with PV and fuel cell in microgrid operation,†ScienceDirect, February 5 2016. Available:

Hassan Bevrani, Bruno François, Toshifumi Ise, “Microgrid Dynamics and Control,†John Wiley & Sons, 18 Jul 2017. Available:

“Solar Photovoltaic Generation Part 2: Phase Locked Loop (PLL) Frequency Control†EETechStuff, March 12, 2017, [accessed June 7, 2020].

A. Al-Shetwi and M. Sujod, "Grid-connected photovoltaic power plants: A review of the recent integration requirements in modern grid codes", International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1849-1865, 2018. Available: 10.1002/er.3983 [Accessed 17 May 2020].

M. Hagh, S. Roozbehani and S. Ghasemzadeh, "Dynamic reverse droop power sharing in microgrid based on neural networks", Procedia Computer Science, vol. 120, pp. 766-779, 2017. Available: 10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.307.

W. Kou, D. Wei, P. Zhang and W. Xiao, "A Direct Phase-coordinates Approach to Fault Ride Through of Unbalanced Faults in Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Systems", Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 43, no. 8-10, pp. 902-913, 2015. Available: 10.1080/15325008.2015.1014580 [Accessed 17 July 2020].

A. Vinayagam, K. Swarna, S. Khoo, A. Oo and A. Stojcevski, "PV Based Microgrid with Grid-Support Grid-Forming Inverter Control-(Simulation and Analysis)", Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, vol. 08, no. 01, pp. 1-30, 2017. Available: 10.4236/sgre.2017.81001 [Accessed 17 July 2020].

W. Guo and L. Mu, "Control principles of micro-source inverters used in microgrid", Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, vol. 1, no. 1, 2016. Available: 10.1186/s41601-016-0019-8 [Accessed 17 July 2020].

G. Adamidis, G. Tsengenes and K. Kelesidis, "Three Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic System with Active and Reactive Power Control Using “Instantaneous Reactive Power Theoryâ€", Renewable Energy and Power Quality Journal, vol. 1, no. 08, pp. 1086-1091, 2010. Available: 10.24084/repqj08.591.

[7]H. Li, H. Zhang, F. Ma and W. Bao, "Modeling, control and simulation of grid-connected PV system with D-STATCOM", 2014 IEEE International Conference on System Science and Engineering (ICSSE), 2014. Available: 10.1109/icsse.2014.6887898 [Accessed 17 July 2020].

Pradeep K. Khatua, Vigna K. Ramachandaramurthy, Jia Ying Yong, Jagadeesh Pasupuleti "Decoupled Control of Three Phase Grid Connected Solar PV System", International Journal of Engineering.






Science and Engineering