EVALUATING SURFACE WATER QUALITY AND WATER MONITORING PARAMETERS IN THE TIEN RIVER, VIETNAMESE MEKONG DELTA
Keywords:Coliforms, organic pollution, principal component analysis, Tien river, water quality
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the surface water quality of the Tien River and identify water quality parameters to be monitored using the water quality monitoring data in the period of 2011 - 2019. The water samples were collected at five locations from Tan Chau to Cho Moi districts, An Giang province for three times per year (i.e., in March, June, and September). Water quality parameters included temperature (oC), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3--N), orthophosphate (PO43--P), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and coliforms. These parameter results were compared with the national technical regulation on surface water quality QCVN 08-MT: 2015/BTNMT, column A1. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the sources of pollution and the main factors affecting water quality. The results of this study showed that DO concentration was lower and TSS, BOD, PO43--P, coliforms concentrations in the Tien river exceeded QCVN 08-MT: 2015/BTNMT, column A1. pH, temperature, and NO3--N values were in accordance with the permitted regulation. The water monitoring parameters were seasonally fluctuated. DO, BOD, TSS, and coliforms concentrations were higher in the rainy season whereas NO3--N and PO43--P were higher in the dry season. The PCA results illustrated that pH, TSS, DO, BOD, PO43--P and coliforms should be included in the monitoring program. Other indicators such as temperature and NO3--N could be considered excluded from the program to save costs.
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