• Chee Loong Teo Department of Research and Development, Agri Season Sdn. Bhd. No 30, Lot 2718 Jalan Kejayaan 1, Batu 24, 81900 Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4157-4556




Pyroligneous extract, Minimum duration of killing (MDK), Antimicrobial agent, Time-kill methods, Rhizophora apiculate


Pyroligneous extract is a by-product of the charcoal making process. Pyroligneous extract application becomes a potential natural active ingredient to contribute in biocosmetics, bioprocess, and biopharmaceutical industry. In this study, five human harmful microorganisms which related urinary tract infection were selected: Candida albicans 10231, Escherichia coli 8739, Enterococcus faecalis 19433, Proteus vulgaris 33420 and Klebsiella pneumoniae 13883. Time-kill kinetics assay method was used to study natural pyroligneous acid as an antimicrobial agent to determine bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of the minimum duration of killing (MDK) with a variety of contact time (0 – 240 minutes). From the result is showed that pyroligneous extract reached 100% of reduction effects with different MDK: E.coli (8739) at 2 minutes, P.vulgaris (33420) at 4 minutes, K.pneumoniae (13883)  at 2 minutes, C.albicans (10231) at 2 minutes and E. faecalis (19433) at 240 minutes. For bioprocess kinetics analysis, the highest specific reduction rate and halve rate according to contact time: E.coli at 2 minutes (3.5450, 5.1144), P.vulgaris at 2 minutes (3.7192, 5.3657), K.pneumoniae  at 2 minutes (3.5015, 5.0516), C.albicans at 2 minutes (3.4947. 5.0417) and E.faecalis at 4 minutes (3.8005, 5.4829). The results of this research provide convincing evidence to pyroligneous extract as an antimicrobial agent.


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How to Cite

Teo , C. L. (2022). EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF PYROLIGNEOUS EXTRACT AS NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT UNDER DIFFERENT CONTACT TIMES. Jurnal Teknologi, 84(5), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v84.17985



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