PHOTOACOUSTIC PHASE ANGLE FOR NONINVASIVE MONITORING OF MICROCIRCULATORY CHANGE IN HUMAN SKIN: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Keywords:Photoacoustic, phase angle, tissue oxygen, microcirculatory, portable
AbstractMeasurement using the currently available tissue oxygen monitoring systems, such as pulse oximeter, is unreliable in patients with compromised microcirculation. Others offer high diagnostic accuracy, but are complicated and expensive in their operation. This paper is motivated to study the use of photoacoustic (PA) phase change as a predictor of skin tissue oxygen levels. This work used EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with a longitudinal transducer and a red laser light of wavelength 633 nm for measurement of PA signals. This pilot study was conducted on a group of four human subjects. The pressure waves were collected from their anterior left arm under three experimental conditions, namely at rest, venous and arterial blood flow occlusions, for extraction of hemoglobin absorption dependent phase information. The overall mean and standard deviation (STDEV) of phase angles for at rest condition are calculated as 1.45 ± 0.26 radians (rads). Higher phase angles were determined for diastolic and systolic occlusion pressures given by 1.72 ± 0.14 rads and 2.06 ± 0.17 rads, respectively. This observation is supported by significant results (ρ =0.000) found between the three experimental studies. This work concluded that the feasibility of photoacoustic system to monitor changes in tissue oxygen performance renders it a promising alternative for portable assessment and measurement of oxygen concentration within microcirculation environment. In future, appropriate adaptive algorithm and padded support should be used to effectively enhance consistency in the detected signals and to minimize movement during the scanning for applications, such as in wound care and management.
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