REMEDIATION OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING SELECTED BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES: A MINI REVIEW

Authors

  • Juliana Jumadi Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8808-3557
  • Azlan Kamari Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3167-0619
  • Nurulsaidah Abdul Rahim Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Norjan Yusof Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Is Fatimah Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, 55584, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v84.18013

Keywords:

Oil palm, POME, wastewater treatment, biological treatment, optimum parameter

Abstract

Undoubtedly, industrial activities have produced a large amount of waste, which has significantly contributed to the global environmental problem. The palm oil sector, which is considered a water-intensive industry, is one of the industrial sectors that have become a major source of severe water pollution concerns. Normally, 50% of the freshwater used during the extraction of crude palm oil will end up in the production of undesirable liquid waste. Thus, proper regulation and enforcement are required to control the discharge of such waste to ensure the sustainability of water resource management. Based on research databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed the total number of publications focused on palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment has increased significantly over the past five years. The increase in publications shows the growing concern about the POME issue among the scientific community. This mini review focuses on selected biological treatment techniques for remediation of POME focusing on ponding systems, bioadsorption, activated sludge, microorganism and plant, aerobic biodegradation and integrated/hybrid treatment strategies. The summary of optimum operating conditions, characteristics of the treatment system, properties of materials and performance of each treatment are discussed in detail. To achieve a high level of contaminant removal performance, it is critical to discover the synergistic effect between the treatment procedures, materials employed, operational cost, and circumstances.

References

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2020. FAOSTAT Database. http://www.fao.org/faostat (10 May 2021).

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2021. World Agricultural Production. https://www.fas.usda.gov/data/world-agricultural-production (22 March 2021).

Kaniapan, S., Hassan, S., Ya, H., Nesan K.P. and Azeem, M. 2021. The Utilisation of Palm Oil and Oil Palm Residues and the Related Challenges as a Sustainable Alternative in Biofuel, Bioenergy, and Transportation Sector: A Review. Sustainability. 13(6): 3110.

Zahan, K. and Kano, M. 2018. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil, Its By-products, and Mill Effluent: A Review. Energies. 11(8): 2132.

Ancrenaz, M., Meijaard, E., Wich, S. and Simery, J. 2016. Palm Oil Paradox: Sustainable Solutions to Save the Great Apes. 2nd edition. UNEP/GRASP. 12-16.

Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC). 2019. Malaysian Palm Oil & its Role in Global Oils & Fats. http://www.mpoc.org.my (10 April 2021).

Chin, M. J., Poh, P. E., Tey, B. T., Chan, E. S. and Chin, K. L. 2013. Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME): Opportunities and Challenges from Malaysia’s Perspective. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 26: 717-726.

Bala, J. D., Lalung, J., Al-Gheethi, A. A. S., Kaizar, H. and Ismail, N. 2018. Reduction of Organic Load and Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Aerobic Indigenous Mixed Microbial Consortium Isolated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Water Conservation Science and Engineering. 3: 139-156.

Department of Environmental Malaysia. 2020. Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Crude Palm Oil) Regulation 1977. http://www.doe.gov.my/portalv1/wpcontent/uploads/2015/01/Environmental_Quality_Prescribed_Premises_Crude_Palm_Oil_Regulations_1977_-_P.U.A_342-77.pdf.

Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia. 2020. Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No. 82 Tahun 2001 Pengelolaan Kualitas Air Dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air. https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/53103/pp-no-82-tahun-2001.

Department of Industrial Work Thailand. 1997. Environmental Management Guideline for the Palm Oil Industry. https://www.elaw.org/system/files/th.palm.oil.industry.guidelines.pdf.

Aris, N. S. M., Ibrahim, S., Arifin, B., and Hawari, Y. 2017. Effect of Operating Parameters on Decolourisation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using Electrocoagulation Process. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology. 25(S): 197-206.

Wu, T. Y., Mohammad, A. W., Jahim, J. M., and Anuar, N. 2010. Pollution Control Technologies for the Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) through End-of-pipe Processes. Journal of Environmental Management. 91(7): 1467-1490.

Naidu, L., and Moorthy, R. 2021. A Review of Key Sustainability Issues in Malaysian Palm Oil Industry. Sustainability. 13(19): 10839.

Nath, A., Mishra, A., and Pande, P. P. 2021. A Review Natural Polymeric Coagulants in Wastewater Treatment. Materialstoday:Proceedings. 46(14): 6113-6117.

Srivatsav, P., Bhargav, B. S., Shanmugasundaram, V., Arun, J., Gopinath, K. P., and Bhatnagar, A. 2020. Biochar as an Eco-friendly and Economical Adsorbent for the Removal of Colorants (Dyes) from Aqueous Environment: A Review. Water. 12(12): 3561.

Jumadi, J., Kamari, A., Rahim, N. A., Fatimah, I., and Sukkaew, A. 2022. A Brief Review of Physico-chemical Treatment Techniques for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Current Applied Science and Technology. 22(5).

Chan, Y. J. and Chong, M. F. 2019. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment - Current Technologies, Biogas Capture and Challenges Green Technologies for the Oil Palm Industry. Springer, Singapore. 71-92.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2015. Ponds, Lagoons, and Natural Systems Study Guide. https://dnr.wi.gov/regulations (1 June 2021).

Rasit, N. and Kuan, O.C. 2018. Investigation on the Influence of Bio-catalytic Enzyme Produced from Fruit and Vegetable Waste On Palm Oil Mill Effluent. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 140: 012015.

Juinui, Q. C. 2008. Research Progress of Novel Adsorption Processes in Water Purification: A Review. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 20(1): 1-13.

Muda, M. S., Kamari, A., Bakar, S. A., Yusoff, S. N. M., Fatimah, I., Phillip, E. and Din, S. M. 2020. Chitosan-graphene Oxide Nanocomposites as Water-solubilising Agents for Rotenone Pesticide. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 318: 114066.

Gisi, S. D., Lofrano, G., Grassi, M. and Notarnicola, M. 2016. Characteristics and Adsorption Capacities of Low-cost Sorbents for Wastewater Treatment: A Review. Sustainable Materials and Technologies. 9: 10-40.

Wafti, N. S. A., Lau, H. L. N., Loh, S. K., Aziz, A. A., Rahman, Z. A. and May, C. Y. 2017. Activated Carbon from Oil Palm Biomass as Potential Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 29(2): 278-290.

Mohammed, R. R. and Chong, M. F. 2014. Treatment and Decolorization of Biologically Treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using Banana Peel as Novel Biosorbent. Journal of Environmental Management. 132: 237-249.

Lam, S. S., Liew, R. K., Cheng, C. K., Rasit, N., Ooi, C. K., Ma, N. L., Ng, J. H., Lam, W. H., Chong, C. T. and Chase, H. A. 2018. Pyrolysis Production of Fruit Peel Biochar for Potential Use in Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Environmental Management. 213: 400-408.

Enaime, G., Bacaoui, A., Yaacoubi, A. and Lubken, M. 2020. Biochar for Wastewater Treatment-Conversion Technologies and Applications. Appl. Sci. 10(10): 3492.

Pandia, S., Hutagalung, A. T. and Siahaan, A. D. 2018. Utilization of Cocoa Peel as Biosorbent for Oil and Color Removal in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 300: 012066.

Sia, Y. Y., Tan, I. A. W. and Abdullah, M. O. 2017. Adsorption of Colour, TSS and COD from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using Acid-washed Coconut Shell Activated Carbon: Kinetic and Mechanism Studies. MATEC Web of Conferences. 87: 03010.

Oyekanmi, A. A., Latiff, A. A. A., Daud, Z., Mohamed, R. M. S. R., Ismail, N., Aziz, A. A., Rafatullah, M., Hossain, K., Ahmad, A. and Abiodun, A. K. 2019. Adsorption of Cadmium and Lead from Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Bone-composite: Optimisation and Isotherm Studies. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 99(8): 707-725.

Adeleke, A. R. O., Latiff, A. A. A., Daud, Z., Ridzuan, B. and Daud, N. F. M. 2016. Remediation of Raw Wastewater of Palm Oil Mill Using Activated Cow Bone Powder through Batch Adsorption. Key Engineering Materials. 705: 380-384.

Saleh, S., Ghani, W. A. W. A. K. and Loh, S. K. 2019. Treated Coal Bottom Ash for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Decolourisation. Journal of Physical Science. 30(3): 101-116.

Said, M., Hasan, H. A., Nor, M. T. M. and Mohammad, A. W. 2016. Removal of COD, TSS and Colour from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using Montmorillonite. Desalination and Water Treatment. 57(23): 10490-10497.

Shavandi, M. A., Haddadian, Z., Ismail, M. H. S., Abdullah, N. and Abidin, Z. Z. 2012. Removal of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Zn(II) from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Natural Zeolite. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 43(5): 750-759.

Shafqat, S. S., Khan, A. A., Zafar, M. N., Alhaji, M. H., Sanaullah, K., Shafqat, S. R., Murtaza, S. and Pang, S. C. 2019. Development of Amino-functionalized Silica Nanoparticles for Efficient and Rapid Removal of COD from Pre-treated Palm Oil Effluent. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 8(1): 385-395.

Wahi, R., Abdullah, L. C., Mobarekeh, M. N., Ngaini, Z., Yaw, T. C. S. 2017. Utilization of Esterified Sago Bark Fibre Waste for Removal of Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5(1): 170-177.

Razali, N. and Kamarulzaman, N. Z. 2020. Chemical Characterizations of Biochar from Palm Oil Trunk for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment. Mater. Today: Proceedings.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.219.

Jalani, N. F., Aziz, A. A., Wahab, N. A., Hassan, W. H. W. and Zainal, N. H. 2016. Application of Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon for the Removal of Pollutant and Color in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment. Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences. 2(1): 15-20.

Hamzah, M. H., Asri, M. F. A., Man, H. C., Mohammed, A., 2019. Prospective Application of Palm Oil Mill Boiler Ash as a Biosorbent: Effect of Microwave Irradiation and Palm Oil Mill Effluent Decolorization by Adsorption. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(18): 3453.

Ibrahim, I., Hassan, M. A., Abd-Aziz, S., Shirai, Y., Andou, Y., Othman, M. R., Ali, A. A. M., Zakaria, M. R. 2017. Reduction of Residual Pollutants from Biologically Treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent Final Discharge by Steam Activated Bioadsorbent from Oil Palm Biomass. Journal of Cleaner Production. 141: 122-127.

Ahansazan, B., Afrashteh, H., Ahansazan, N., Ahansazan, Z. 2014. Activated Sludge Process Overview. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 5(1).

Wang, L. K., Wang, M. H. S., Shammas, N. K. 2021. Biological Processes for Water Resource Protection and Water Recovery. In: Wang, L. K., Wang, M. H. S., Hung, Y. T., Shammas, N. K. (eds). Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering. Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Springer, Cham. 19.

Wun, W. L., Chua, G. K. and Chin, S. Y. 2017. Effect of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment by Activated Sludge. Journal Clean WAS. 1(2): 06-09.

Abdulsalam, M., Man, H. C., Yunos, K. F., Abidin, Z. Z., Idris, A. I. and Hamzah, M. H. 2020. Augmented Yeast-extract and Diary-waste for Enhancing Bio-decolourization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent using Activated Sludge. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 36: 101263.

Bala, J. D., Lalung, J. and Ismail, N. 2014. Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Bacterial. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 4(3): 24-31.

Chaijak, P., Lertworapreecha, M. and Sukkasem, C. 2018. Phenol Removal from Palm Oil Mill Effluent using galactomyces reessii Termite-associated Yeast. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 27(1): 39-44.

Neoh, C. H., Lam, C. Y., Ghani, S. M., Ware, I., Sarip, S. H. M. and Ibrahim, Z. 2016. Bioremediation of High-strength Agricultural Wastewater using ochrobactrum sp. Strain SZ1. 3 Biotech. 6(2): 143.

Neoh, C. H., Lam, C. Y., Yahya, A., Ware, I. and Ibrahim, Z. 2015. Utilization of Agro-industrial Residues from Palm Oil Industry for Production of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes by curvularia clavata. Waste Biomass Valorization. 6(3): 385-390.

Nwuche, C. O., Aoyagi, H. and Ogbonna, J. C. 2014. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils. Int. Sch. Res. Notices. 2014: 762070.

Iwuagwu, J. O. and Ugwuanyi, J. O. 2014. Treatment and Volarization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass. Journal of Waste Management. 2014: 439071.

Soleimaninanadegani, M. and Manshad, S. 2014. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014: 727049.

Kamyab, H., Chelliapan, S., Din, M. F. M., Shahbazian-Yassar, R., Rezania, S., Khademi, T., Kumar, A. and Azimi, M. 2017. Evaluation of Lemna minor and Chlamydomonas to Treat Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Fertilizer Production. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 17: 229-236.

Kadir, A. B. A., Abdullah, S. R. S. and Hasan, H. A. 2018. Comparative Phytotoxicity of Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor in Treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent. International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 7(4): 2499-2505.

Darajeh, N., Idris, A., Truong, P., Aziz, A. A., Bakar, R. A. and Man, H. C. 2014. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2014: 683579.

Tan, I. A. W., Jamali, N. S. and Ting W. H. T. 2019. Phytoremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using Eichhornia crassipes. Journal of Applied Science and Process Engineering. 6(1): 340-354.

Soetrisnanto, D. and Hadiyanto, H. 2014. Phytoremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by using Pistia stratiotes Plant and Algae Spirulina sp for Biomass Production. International Journal of Engineering. 27(12): 1809-1814.

Chukwunonso, O. I., Fauziah, S. H. and Redzwan, G. 2014. The Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Aquatic Macrophage Treatment System (AMATS) in Phytoremediation for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 13(2): 31-47.

Chan, Y. J., Chong, M. F. and Law, C. L. 2019. Biological Treatment of Anaerobically Digested Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using a Lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Journal of Environmental Management. 91(8): 1738-1746.

Chan, Y. J., Chong, M. F. and Law, C. L. 2011. Optimization on Thermophilic Aerobic Treatment of Anaerobically Digested Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Biochemical Engineering Journal. 55(3): 193-198.

Ahmad, A. L., Idris, I., Chan, C. Y. and Ismail, S. 2015. Reclamation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent using an Integrated Zero Discharge Membrane-based Process. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology. 17(4): 49-55.

Parthasarathy, S., Gomes, R. L. and Manickam, S. 2016. Process Intensification of Anaerobically Digested Palm Oil Mill Effluent (AAD-POME) Treatment using Combined Chitosan Coagulation, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Fenton’s Oxidation. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 18(1): 219-230.

Ratpukdi, T. 2012. Decolorization of Anaerobically Treated Palm Oil Mill Wastewater using Combined Coagulation and Vacuum Ultraviolet-hydrogen Peroxide. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. 3(5): 333-336.

Ng, C. A., Wong, L. Y., Chai, H. Y., Bashir, M. J. K., Ho, C. D., Nisar, H. and Lo, P. K. 2017. Investigation on the Performance of Hybrid Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors for Fouling Control and Biogas Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment. Water Science and Technology. 76(6): 1389-1398.

Tan, S. P., Kong, H. F., Bashir, M. J. K., Lo, P. K., Ho, C. D. and Ng, C. A. 2017. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent using Combination System of Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor. Bioresource Technology. 245: 916-924.

Abdurahman, N. H., Azhari, H. N. and Said, N. 2017. An Integrated Ultrasonic Membrane an Aerobic System (IUMAS) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment. Energy Procedia. 138: 1017-1022.

Tabassum, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z. 2015. An Integrated Method for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment for Achieving Zero Liquid Discharge – A Pilot Study. Journal of Cleaner Production. 95: 148-155.

Published

2022-07-26

How to Cite

Jumadi, J. ., Kamari, A., Abdul Rahim, N., Yusof, N. ., & Fatimah, I. (2022). REMEDIATION OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING SELECTED BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES: A MINI REVIEW . Jurnal Teknologi, 84(5). https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v84.18013

Issue

Section

Science and Engineering