• Nur Hazwani Izham Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nur Azreen Saidon Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7536-1789
  • Abdul Fattah A. Samad Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Alina Wagiran Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia




DNA extraction, herbal products, ITS2, modified conventional methods, gDNA


Demand for herbal products has increased because of their purported health benefits and economic value. However, they are susceptible to adulteration, making accurate identification of herbal origin essential, especially for quality control. In recent decades, DNA-based methods have played a crucial role in the development of authentication tools that required good quality of DNA. The manufacturing process of herbal products involved heating, grinding or other mechanical procedures, and addition of excipients/additives caused DNA to degrade which in turn influenced DNA quality. In this study, nine different conventional methods with some modifications were evaluated to determine the best technique producing good quality DNA from capsule herbal products. Assessment was conducted using spectrophotometric measurements and agarose gel electrophoresis. To determine the quality of gDNA, amplification of ITS2 amplicon was performed by PCR. The DNA extraction finding showed that DNA quality from each method resulted in a different DNA purity and yield, hence the ITS2 amplification. Each of the modified DNA extraction methods performed has its own strengths and limitations when it comes to obtaining high quality gDNA. In addition, the study demonstrated the success of ITS2 amplification with the modified DNA extraction methods used.


Abubakar, B. M. et al. 2021. Comparative Evaluation of Different DNA Extraction Methods from E. Longifolia Herbal Medicinal Product. eFood. 2(1): 21.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.2991/efood.k.210202.001.

Azmin, S. N. H. M. et al. 2016. Herbal Processing and Extraction Technologies. Separation and Purification Reviews. 45(4): 305-320.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15422119.2016.1145395.

Di Bernardo, G. et al. 2007. Comparative Evaluation of Different DNA Extraction Procedures from Food Samples. Biotechnology Progress. 23(2): 297-301.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/bp060182m.

Cahyaningsih, R. et al. 2022. DNA Barcoding Medicinal Plant Species from Indonesia. Plants. 11(10).

Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101375.

Chen, S. et al. 2010. Validation of the ITS2 Region as a Novel DNA Barcode for Identifying Medicinal Plant Species. PLoS ONE. 5(1): 1-8. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008613.

Cheng, X. et al. 2014. DNA Extraction Protocol for Biological Ingredient Analysis of Liuwei Dihuang Wan. Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatic. 12(3): 137-143. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2014.03.002.

Costa, J. et al. 2015. DNA Extraction from Plant Food Supplements: Influence of Different Pharmaceutical Excipients. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 29(6): 473-478. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2015.06.002.

Datukishvili, N. et al. 2010. Comparative Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods for Food Crops. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 45(6): 1316-1320.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02261.x.

Doyle, J. J. and Doyle, J. L. 1987. A Rapid DNA Isolation Procedure for Small Quantities of Fresh Leaf Tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin. 19(1): 11-15.

Faller, A.C. et al. 2019. DNA Quality and Quantity Analysis of Camellia Sinensis through Processing from Fresh Leaves to a Green Tea Extract. J. AOAC Int. 102.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.18-0318.

Gunnels, T. et al. 2020. The ITS Region Provides a Reliable DNA Barcode for Identifying Reishi/lingzhi (Ganoderma) from Herbal Supplements. PLoS ONE. 15(11 November). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236774.

Harini, S. S. et al. 2008. Optimization of DNA Isolation and PCR - RAPD Methods for Molecular Analysis of Urginea Indica Kunth. International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2(2): 138-144.

Hollingsworth, P. M., Graham, S. W. and Little, D. P. 2011. Choosing and Using a Plant DNA Barcode. PLoS ONE. 6(5). Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019254.

Little, D. P. and Gulick, P. 2014. Authentication of Ginkgo Biloba Herbal Dietary Supplements using DNA Barcoding. Genome. 57(9): 513-516.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1139/gen-2014-0130.

Llongueras, J. P. et al. 2013. Comparing DNA Extraction Methods for Analysis of Botanical Materials Found in Anti-diabetic Supplements. Molecular Biotechnology. 53(3): 249-256.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12033-012-9520-0.

Lo, Y. T. and Shaw, P. C. 2018. DNA-based Techniques for Authentication of Processed Food and Food Supplements. Food Chemistry, 240(July 2017): 767-774.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.022.

Lu, Z., Rubinsky, M., Babajanian, S., Zhang, Y., Chang, P., Swanson, G. 2018. Visualization of DNA in Highly Processed Botanical Materials. Food Chem. 245: 1042-1051

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.067.

Nehal, N. et al. 2021. DNA Barcoding: A Modern Age Tool for Detection of Adulteration in Food. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. Taylor and Francis Ltd. 767-791.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2021.1874279.

Newmaster, S. G. et al. 2013. DNA Barcoding Detects Contamination and Substitution in North American Herbal Products. BMC Medicine. 11.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2017.01.162.

Pang, X. et al. 2013. Use of the Potential DNA Barcode ITS2 to Identify Herbal Materials. Journal of Natural Medicines. 67(3): 571-575. Doi: 10.1007/s11418-012-0715-2.

Pinto, A. Di et al. 2007. A Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Food Analysis. Food Control. 18(1): 76-80.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.08.011.

Ragupathy,S. et al. 2019. Exploring DNA Quantity and Quality from Raw Materials to Botanical Extracts' Helion. 5: e01935.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01935.

Saghai-Maroof, M. A. et al. 1984. Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81(24): 8014-8018.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.81.24.8014.

Techen, N. et al. 2014. DNA Barcoding of Medicinal Plant Material for Identification. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 25: 103-110.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2013.09.010.

Tnah, L. H. et al. 2019. DNA Barcode Database of Common Herbal Plants in the Tropics: A Resource for Herbal Product Authentication. Food Control. 95(August 2018): 318-326.


Verma, S. K. and Biswas, N. 2020. A Novel Nucleic Acid Extractions Method from Aromatic Herbs and Dried Herbal Powders using Cow Skim Milk. Scientific Reports. 10: 11513

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68467-4.




How to Cite

Izham, N. H. ., Saidon, N. A. ., A. Samad, A. F. ., & Wagiran, A. . (2022). EVALUATION OF DNA QUALITY FROM MODIFIED DNA EXTRACTION AND AMPLIFICATION OF ITS2 FROM Eurycoma longifolia CAPSULE HERBAL PRODUCTS. Jurnal Teknologi, 85(1), 63-69. https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v85.18545



Science and Engineering