• Ainur Awanis Mohd Badiazaman Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 22200, Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Khamsah Suryati Mohd Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 22200, Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6079-6774
  • Nur Basyirah Md Zin Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 22200, Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8194-0154
  • Habsah Mohamad Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Ahmad Nazif Aziz ᵇInstitute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia ᶜFaculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8816-2626






Propolis is a natural substance produced by the bees to protect their hive. The present work reports the utilization of chemical profiling and fingerprinting combined with multivariate analysis for discrimination of the geographical origin of Malaysian stingless bee propolis. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) has been performed to profile the chemical composition of Geniotrigona thoracica propolis from different localities in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia namely Besut, Terengganu (BST), Dungun, Terengganu (DGN), Lundang, Kelantan (LDG), Tanah Merah, Kelantan (TM) and Gua Musang, Kelantan (GM). The obtained HPTLC profiles showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids in propolis. The chemical fingerprinting was obtained through Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Chemometric analysis on FTIR dataset using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) have classified the propolis into three major groups according to their sampling locations. Chemical fingerprinting analysis on the functional group via FTIR and chemometric revealed that the locations of propolis have direct correlation with the chemical composition, thus affecting the biological activities of propolis.  Both chemical marker and chemical fingerprinting analysis are important tools in propolis standardization.


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Science and Engineering

How to Cite

HPTLC PROFILING AND FTIR FINGERPRINTING COUPLED WITH CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MALAYSIAN STINGLESS BEE PROPOLIS . (2023). Jurnal Teknologi, 85(2), 121-131. https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v85.19050