Nanoparticles, release, aggregate, transformation, IR-4.0


The development and empowerment of nanotechnology have always attracted scientists and industry players because this sector has the potential to become a new economic bottom line. Various products involving nano-sized materials have been utilized to create items that can provide benefits to humans. This usage will inevitably lead to an increasing number of nanoparticles being released into the environment. The scenario of releasing various nanoparticles from consumer products into natural water and the environment raises great concern nowadays. Thus, this brief review aims to provide information on the types of nanoparticles, release scenarios, pathways of nanoparticles into the environment, and their reactions when released into the water environment.


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