• Suhaily Suhaimi Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nardiah Rizwana Jaafar Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Nashriq Jailani Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Roshanida A. Rahman Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Norzita Ngadi Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Abdul Munir Abdul Murad Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim Water Quality Laboratory, National Water Research Institute Malaysia (NAHRIM), Ministry of Environmental and Water, Jalan Putra Permai, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Rosli Md. Illias Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Magnetic nanoparticles, functionalized starch, laccase, covalent immobilization


Surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is crucial to provide a strong protein-support interaction for the immobilization process. The stability and biocompatibility of the MNP can be structurally enhanced by integrating with organic materials. In this study, MNP from KI/FeCl3 has successfully synthesized that showed a stronger magnetic strength (72.5 emu/g) compared to common standard precursors, FeCl2/FeSO4 (< 60 emu/g). The synthesized MNP was then incorporated via in-situ with functionalized starch; dialdehyde (DAS-MNP), thiol (TS-MNP), and carboxymethyl (CMS-MNP) for Laccase (Lac) immobilization. From docking analysis, CMS-MNP portrayed the highest binding affinity and interacted with highest number of Lac amino acids residues compared to DAS- and TS-MNP. Aligned with this result, immobilized Lac using CMS-MNP achieved the highest recovery activity (80.3%), highly stable at 75 °C for 4 h, and retained more than 50% of its initial activity after 10 cycles. The CMS-MNP-Lac also showed about the same catalytic efficiency with free Lac (1.19 and 1.58 mM-1s-1, respectively). It is demonstrated that the functional group of the starch-MNP plays a crucial role in attaining a stable immobilized Lac. Therefore, yield a promising biocatalyst to be applied in various fields.


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