ASSESSING TROPHIC STATE AND WATER QUALITY OF SMALL LAKES AND PONDS IN PERAK

Authors

  • Zati Sharip National Water Research Institute of Malaysia, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3523-1178
  • Mohd Hafiz Zulkifli National Water Research Institute of Malaysia, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Nur Farhan Abd Wahab National Water Research Institute of Malaysia, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Zubaidi Johar National Water Research Institute of Malaysia, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Zaki Mat Amin National Water Research Institute of Malaysia, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v86.20566

Keywords:

Ecosystem health, eutrophication, ponds, water quality, waterbodies

Abstract

There are thousands of ponds and small lakes in Perak created naturally or as a result of past mining activities in the 1800s and 1900s. Some of these small water bodies have been converted to lake park to provide other ecosystem services such as recreation besides having potential to be used as alternative water supply. Most of these lakes were not monitored nor evaluated in terms of their water quality or trophic conditions to enable better understanding of their safe application for recreation. Water quality sampling was performed at sixteen lakes and ponds in Perak involving in situ and ex-situ measurements of ten environmental parameters. About six lakes have very low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels needed to sustain aquatic life and few lakes have very low transparency levels (<0.3 m) to be compatible for primary contact recreational use. More than 75% of the study lakes and ponds were nutrient rich. Trophic state analyses using different indices developed for temperate and tropical environments showed one lake in oligotrophic condition, five lakes in mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions and 10 lakes in eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. Hypereutrophic lakes were characterised as having low DO, high nutrient, turbidity, and chlorophyll a. This study found some deviations among the trophic classification of lakes between temperate and tropical indices and suggests the use of a suitable trophic index to provide better understanding of the trophic conditions of waterbodies in Perak. 

References

Ahmad, S., Jones, D. 2013. Investigating the Mining Heritage Significance for Kinta District, the Industrial Heritage Legacy of Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 105: 445-457.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.047.

Yusoff, F. M., Shariff, M., & Gopinath, N. 2006. Diversity of Malaysian Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management. 9(2): 119-135.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14634980600713315.

Sharip, Z., Zulkifli, M. H., Johar, Z., Amin, M. Z. M., Md Noh, M. N. 2020. A reassessment on the Inventory of Water Bodies in Malaysia and Trophic Status of Selected Lake Types. Malaysia Water Research Journal. 10: 70-79.

Mullins, M. L., Doyle, R. D. 2019. Big Things Come in Small Packages: Why Limnologists Should Care about Small Ponds. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia. 31.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2179-975X4119.

Low, K. H., Koki, I. B., Juahir, H., Azid, A., Behkami, S., Ikram, R., Mohammed, H. A., Zain, S. M. 2016. Evaluation of Water Quality Variation in Lakes, Rivers, and Ex-mining Ponds in Malaysia. Desalination and Water Treatment. 57: 28215-28239.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2016.1185382.

Koki, I. B., Hin, L. K., Juahir, H., Zali, M. A., Azid, A., Zain, S. M. 2017. Consumption of Water from Ex-mining Ponds in Klang Valley and Melaka, Malaysia: A Health Risk Study. Chemosphere. 195: 641-652

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.112.

Nasir, N., Mohmadisa, H., Yazid, S., Kamarul, I., Hanifah, M., See, K. 2016. The Concentration Levels of Heavy Metals in the Recreational Lake, Taiping Lake Gardens, Perak. Geografi. 4: 36-45

Sulaiman, N. H., Khalit, S. I., Sharip, Z., Samsudin, M. S., Azid, A. 2018. Seasonal Variations of Water Quality and Heavy Metals in Two Ex-mining Lakes using Chemometric Assessment Approach. Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. 14: 67-72.

NAHRIM. 2009. Study on the Status of Eutrophication of Lakes in Malaysia. Seri Kembangan: NAHRIM.

Chakrabarti, S. 2018. Eutrophication—A Global Aquatic Environmental Problem: A Review. Research & Review: Journals of Ecology and Environmental Science. 6: 1-6.

Nakamura, M. 1997. Preserving the Health of the World Lakes. Environment. 39: 16-40.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00139159709603645.

Thornton, J. A., Harding, W. R., Dent, M., Hart, R. C., Lin, H., Rast, C. L., Rast, W., Ryding, S-O., Slawski, T. M. 2013. Eutrophication as a ‘Wicked’ Problem. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 18: 298-316.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lre.12044.

Sinha, E., Michalak, A. M., Balaji, V. 2017. Eutrophication will Increase During the 21st Century as a Result of Precipitation Changes. Science. 357: 405.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aan2409.

Ljung, K., Lin, S. 2023. Organic Carbon Burial in Constructed Ponds in Southern Sweden. Earth Science, Systems and Society. 3.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/esss.2023.10061.

Schroer, W. F., Benitez-Nelson, C. R., Smith, E. M., Ziolkowski, L. A. 2018. Drivers of Sediment Accumulation and Nutrient Burial in Coastal Stormwater Detention Ponds, South Carolina, USA. Ecosystems. 21(6): 1118-1138. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0207-z.

Taguchi, V. J., Olsen, T. A., Natarajan, P., Janke, B. D., Gulliver, J. S., Finlay, J. C., Stefan, H. G. 2020. Internal Loading in Stormwater Ponds as a Phosphorus Source to Downstream Waters. Limnology and Oceanography Letters. 5(4): 322-330.

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10155.

Duré, G. A. V., Simões, N. R., Braghin, LdSM, Ribeiro, S. M. M. S. 2021. Effect of Eutrophication on the Functional Diversity of Zooplankton in Shallow Ponds in Northeast Brazil. Journal of Plankton Research. 43(6): 894-907.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbab064.

Kitan, Y. A., Sinang, S. C. 2020. Evaluation of Eutrophication Indicators in Slim River Lake, Perak – Malaysia. International Journal of Multidisciplinary. 5.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.31305/rrijm.2020.v05.i11.001.

Pin, D. C. M., Guo, X., Wang, K., Chng, L-M., Wong. L-P., Zhao, X. 2019. Assessment of Water Eutrophication in Kampar, Malaysia. Pages 020022. AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing LLC.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5126557.

APHA. 2012. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. American Public Health Association (APHA).

Carlson, R. E. 1977. A Trophic State Index for Lakes. Limnology and Oceanography. 22: 361-369.

Lamparelli, M. C. 2004. Trophic Status in Sao Paolo Waterbodies - Evaluation Of Monitoring Methodologies. University of Sao Paolo.

NAHRIM. 2015. National Lake Water Quality Criteria and Standards, in Water Quality and Environment Division, ed. Seri Kembangan: National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia.

Miranda, L. E., Hargreaves, J. A., & Raborn, S. W. 2001. Predicting and Managing Risk of Unsuitable Dissolved Oxygen in a Eutrophic Lake. Hydrobiologia. 457: 177-185.

Sharip, Z., & Mohamad, M. F. 2019. Microbial Contamination in Urban Tropical Lentic Water Bodies and Ponds along Urbanisation Gradient. Journal of Tropical Agriculture Science. 42(1): 165-184.

Sharip, Z., Zaki, A. T. A., Shapai, M. A. H., Suratman, S., Shaaban, A. J. 2014. Lakes of Malaysia: Water Quality, Eutrophication and Management. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 19: 130-141.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lre.12059.

Goodwin, K., Caraco, N., & Cole, J. 2008. Temporal Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen in a Floating-leaved Macrophyte Bed. Freshwater Biology. 53(8): 1632-1641. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.01983.x.

Dersseh, M., Steenhuis, T., Kibret, A., Eneyew, B., Kebedew, M., Zimale, F., Worqlul, A., Moges, M., Abebe, W., Mhiret, D. 2022. Water Quality Characteristics of a Water Hyacinth Infested Tropical Highland Lake: Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Frontiers in Water. 4: 774710.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frwa.

Sharip, Z., Salmah, Z., Amin, M. Z. M. 2021. Assessing Lakes using Specific Lake Water Quality Criteria and Standard for Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. International E-Conference of Science and Biosphere Reserve. 164-171.

Ashraf, M. A., Maah, M. J., Yusoff, I. 2012. Morphology, Geology and Water Quality Assessment of Former Tin Mining Catchment. The Scientific World Journal. 369206.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/369206.

Wurtsbaugh, W. A., Paerl, H. W., Dodds, W. K. 2019. Nutrients, Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms along the Freshwater to Marine Continuum. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 6(5): e1373.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1373.

Cunha, D. G. F., Finkler, N. R., Lamparelli, M. C., Calijuri, MdC, Dodds, W. K., Carlson, R. E. 2021. Characterizing Trophic State in Tropical/Subtropical Reservoirs: Deviations among Indexes in the Lower Latitudes. Environmental Management. 68: 491-504.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-021-01521-7.

Bick, E., de Lange, E. S., Kron, C. R., da Silva, Soler, L., Liu, J., Nguyen, H. D. 2020. Effects of Salinity and Nutrients on Water Hyacinth and Its Biological Control Agent. Neochetina bruchi. Hydrobiologia. 847: 3213-3224.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10750-020-04314-x.

Otieno, D., Nyaboke, H., Nyamweya, C. S., Odoli, C. O., Aura, C. M., Outa, N. O. 2022. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Infestation Cycle and Interactions with Nutrients and Aquatic Biota in Winam Gulf (Kenya), Lake Victoria. Lakes & Reservoirs: Science, Policy and Management for Sustainable Use. 27: e12391.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lre.12391.

Prasetyo, S., Anggoro, S., Soeprobowati, T. R. 2021. The Growth Rate of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 22: 222-231

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12911/22998993/137678.

Downloads

Published

2024-01-15

How to Cite

Sharip, Z., Zulkifli, M. H., Abd Wahab, M. N. F., Johar, Z., & Mat Amin, M. Z. (2024). ASSESSING TROPHIC STATE AND WATER QUALITY OF SMALL LAKES AND PONDS IN PERAK . Jurnal Teknologi, 86(2), 51–59. https://doi.org/10.11113/jurnalteknologi.v86.20566

Issue

Section

Science and Engineering