A Review of Strategies to Implement Sustainable Urban Transportation Options in Malaysia


  • Mohd Azizul Ladin School of Engineering & Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
  • Amsori Muhammad Das Sustainable Urban Transport Research Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • A. Najah Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Amiruddin Ismail Sustainable Urban Transport Research entre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K. Rahmat Sustainable Urban Transport Research entre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia




Non-motorized transport, public transport, private vehicle, sustainable transport


Since the 1987 Brundtland Commission report brought global attention to sustainable development, many scholars and professionals have worked to apply its principles, notions and strategies in the urban context to transportation. Consequently, this paper examines strategies to implement sustainable transport. It traces efforts to operationalize the notion of sustainable road transportation in transport options. The authors address the problem faced by the Malaysian transportation sector today in major economic, social and environmental elements. Then, the authors identify various strategies that focused on improvement such as Non-Motorized Transport (NMT), Public Transport and Private Vehicles. The authors also discuss extending all strategies comprising these three parts. This paper calls for further studies to verify the best strategies to implement, given that some strategies may be suitable or convenient at certain places and under certain circumstances.


Greene, D.L. and M. Wegener. 1997. Sustainable Transport. Journal of Transport Geography. 5(3): 177–190.

Ong, H., T. Mahlia, and H. Masjuki. 2011. A Review on Energy Pattern and Policy for Transportation Sector in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

Qureshi, I. A. and H. Lu. 2007.Urban Transport and Sustainable Transport Strategies: A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan. Tsinghua Science & Technology. 12(3): 309–317.

Drumheller, B., et al. 2001. Sustainable Transportation Options For Protecting The Climate. A Guide For Local Governments. International Council for Local Environmental Initiative, Berkeley, CA.

Britain, G. 2007. Towards a Sustainable Transport System: Supporting Economic Growth in a Low Carbon World. Stationery Office. 7226.

Colvile, R., et al. 2001. The Transport Sector As A Source Of Air Pollution. Atmospheric Environment. 35(9): 1537–1565.

Downs, A. 2004. Still Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-hour Traffic Congestion. Brookings Inst Press.

Arnott, R. and K. Small. 1994. The Economics of Traffic Congestion. American Scientist. 446–455.

Toh, R. S. and S. Y. Phang. 1997. Curbing Urban Traffic Congestion in Singapore. A Comprehensive Review. Transportation Journal. 37(2): 24–33.

Chin, A. T. H. 1996. Containing Air Pollution and Traffic Congestion: Transport Policy and the Environment in Singapore. Atmospheric Environment. 30(5): 787–801.

Odero, W., P. Garner, and A. Zwi. 1997. Road Traffic Injuries in Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological Studies. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2(5): 445–460.

Ameratunga, S., M. Hijar, and R. Norton. 2006. Road-traffic Injuries: Confronting Disparities to Address a Global-health Problem. Lancet. 367(9521): 1533–1540.

Abdul Manan, M.M. and A. Várhelyi. 2012. Motorcycle Fatalities in Malaysia. IATSS Research,

Radin, U. R. S., M. G. Mackay, and B.L. Hills. 1996. Modelling of Conspicuity-related Motorcycle Accidents in Seremban And Shah Alam, Malaysia. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 28(3): 325–332.

Masuri, M. G., K. A. M. Isa, and M. P. M. Tahir. 2012. Children, Youth and Road Environment: Road Traffic Accident. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 38(0): 213–218.

Johnson, D. S., J. M. Rogers, and L. Tan. 2001. Century of Family Budgets in the United States. A. Monthly Lab. Rev. 124: 28.

17. Lipman, B. 2006. A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Burdens of Working Families.

Riduan, F. 2012. Jalan Sesak dan Sesak Nafas. In Milenia Muslim MMP Communications Sdn Bhd: Kuala Lumpur. 8–11.

Litman, T. 2008. Transportation Affordability: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies.

Aftabuzzaman, M., G. Currie, and M. Sarvi. 2010. Evaluating the Congestion Relief Impacts of Public Transport in Monetary Terms. Journal of Public Transportation. 13(1): 1–24.

Hyman, G. and L. Mayhew. 2002. Optimizing the Benefits of Urban Road User Charging. Transport Policy. 9(3): 189–207.

Pucher, J., et al. 2007. Urban Transport Trends and Policies in China and India: Impacts of Rapid Economic Growth. Transport Reviews. 27(4): 379–410.

Eddington, R., The Eddington Transport Study. Main Report: Transport's Role in Sustaining the UK's Productivity and Competitiveness2006.

Nor., A. R. M. 2004. Guaranteeing Sustainability of Putrajaya : A New Approach in Urban Planning with Special Reference to Public Transport Empowerment

Ong, H., T. Mahlia, and H. Masjuki. 2011. A Review on Emissions and Mitigation Strategies for Road Transport in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(8): 3516–3522.

Miller, T., et al. 1991. The Costs of Highway Crashes. Final Report.

Peden, M., et al. 2004. World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. World Health Organization Geneva.

Litman, T. A. 2009. Transportation Policy and Injury Control. Injury Prevention. 15(6): 362–363.

Vyrostek, S. B., J. L. Annest, and G.W. Ryan. 2001. Surveillance for Fatal and Nonfatal Injuries—United States. MMWR Surveill Summ. 53(7): 1–57.

Briggs, N. C., et al. 2005. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System as a Tool for Investigating Racial and Ethnic Determinants of Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 37(4): 641–649.

Litman, T. and S. Fitzroy. 2009. Safe Travels: Evaluating Mobility Management Traffic Safety Impacts.

Shafie, S., et al. 2011. Current Energy Usage and Sustainable Energy in Malaysia: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

Oh, T. H. and S. C. Chua. 2010. Energy Efficiency and Carbon Trading Potential in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(7): 2095–2103.

Litman, T. and D. Burwell. 2006. Issues in Sustainable Transportation. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues. 6(4): 331–347.

Zuidgeest, M. H. P. 2005. Sustainable Urban Transport Development: A Dynamic Optimisation Approach. University of Twente.

Litman, T. 2011. Evaluating Non-motorized Transportation Benefits and Costs. Victoria: Victoria Transport Policy Institute,

Shaheen, S. 2011. Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing in Hangzhou, China.

Oja, P., I. Vuori, and O. Paronen. 1998. Daily Walking and Cycling to Work: Their Utility as Health-enhancing Physical Activity. Patient Education and Counseling. 33: S87–S94.

Ohta, M., et al. 2007. Effect of the Physical Activities in Leisure Time and Commuting to Work on Mental Health. Journal of Occupational Health. 49(1): 46–52.

Andersen, L. B., et al. 2000. All-cause Mortality Associated with Physical Activity During Leisure Time, Work, Sports, and Cycling to Work. Archives of Internal Medicine. 160(11): 1621.

Bassett Jr, D. R., et al. 2008. Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 5(6): 795–814.

Bauman, A., et al. 2008. Cycling: Getting Australia Moving: Barriers, Facilitators and Interventions to Get More Australians Physically Active Through Cycling. Melbourne: Cycling Promotion Fund.

Huy, C., et al. 2008. Health, Medical Risk Factors, and Bicycle Use in Everyday Life in the Over-50 Population. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 16(4): 454.

Litman, T., et al. 2005. Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning: A Guide to Best Practices. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Love, D.C., et al. 2012. Is the Three-foot Bicycle Passing Law Working in Baltimore, Maryland? Accident Analysis & Prevention.

Porter-Rockwell, B. 2010. How to Encourage Your Employees to Bike to Work. [cited 2012 11 December 2012]; Available from: http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/04/bike-to-work.html.

Gaines, L. K. and V. E. Kappeler. 2011. 5 - Police Operations, in Policing in America. Seventh Edition. Anderson Publishing, Ltd.: Boston. 171–218.

Litman, T. 2011. Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. 65.

Ongkittikul, S. and H. Geerlings. 2006. Opportunities for Innovation in Public Transport: Effects of Regulatory Reforms on Innovative Capabilities. Transport Policy. 13(4): 283–293.

Kamaruddin, R., I. Osman, and C.A.C. Pei. 2012. Public Transport Services in Klang Valley: Customer Expectations and Its Relationship Using SEM. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 36: 431–438.

Santos, G., H. Behrendt, and A. Teytelboym. 2010. Part II: Policy Instruments for Sustainable Road Transport. Research in Transportation Economics. 28(1): 46–91.

Ibrahim, M. F. 2003. Improvements and Integration of a Public Transport System: The Case Of Singapore. Cities. 20(3): 205–216.

Sharaby, N. and Y. Shiftan. 2012. The Impact of Fare Integration on Travel Behavior and Transit Ridership. Transport Policy. 21: 63–70.

Jawi, Z. M., et al. 2012. Automotive Ecosystem in Malaysia–A Conceptual Model to Explain Vehicle Ownership and Car Maintenance Issues. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 165: 224–231.

Kamba, A. N., R. Rahmat, and A. Ismail. 2007. Why Do People Use Their Cars: A Case Study in Malaysia. Journal of Social Sciences. 3(3): 117–122.

Shahid, E. M. and Y. Jamal. 2008. A Review of Biodiesel as Vehicular Fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 12(9): 2484–2494.

He, J., Z. Zeng, and Z. Li. 2010. Benefit Evaluation Framework of Intelligent Transportation Systems. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology. 10(1): 81–87.

Marell, A. and K. Westin. 1999. Intelligent Transportation System and Traffic Safety–Drivers Perception and Acceptance of Electronic Speed Checkers. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 7(2–3): 131–147.

Cheng, H.-Y., et al. 2012. Advanced Formation and Delivery of Traffic Information in Intelligent Transportation Systems. Expert Systems with Applications. 39(9): 8356–8368.

Atkinson, R., et al. 2010. Explaining International IT Application Leadership: Intelligent Transportation Systems.




How to Cite

A Review of Strategies to Implement Sustainable Urban Transportation Options in Malaysia. (2014). Jurnal Teknologi, 69(2). https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v69.3112