• Saiful Irwan Zubairi School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia
  • Zetty Shafiqa Othman School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia
  • Mohamad Roji Sarmidi Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Ramlan Abdul Aziz Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia




Derris sp., Bio-pesticide, Rotenone, Extraction, Toxicology, Biological assay


Bio-pesticides are natural occurring substances that control pest and derived either from plants or microorganism. It play a vital role in coping with adverse effect arise due to massive used of synthetic pesticides and development of insecticide resistance of some insect groups in crop productions. Thus, Derris species from Leguminosae (Fabacea) family is a climbing plant of Southeast Asia that was well known for its environmental friendly bioactive compound is used as one of the effective insecticides. Rotenone was one of the bioactive constituents extracted from Derris plant that was used as agricultural pest control due to its strong paralysis action (knock-down effect) on cold blooded animals. Moreover, it has a lethal mechanism in inhibiting respiratory enzyme of insects and easily degrades which makes it environmental friendly. Extraction of rotenone commonly uses organic solvents as extractant either in non-conventional extraction methods or conventional method. Application of green solvents, ionic liquids as extractant is new approach for rotenone extraction. Indeed environmental friendly bio-pesticides have not been studied thoroughly and several approach and further study are required to produce high quality and environmental friendly bio-pesticides. In addition, biological assay such as “Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality†study is also vital in order to determine a preliminary safe exposure limit of extracted rotenone prior to be used as pesticides. For that reason, a review of the environmental friendly bio-pesticide rotenone extracted from Derris sp. is presented herewith. This article reviews the up scaling extraction methods, toxicity and its effectiveness against several moth species such as Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella.

Author Biography

  • Saiful Irwan Zubairi, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia
    Dr. Saiful Irwan Zubairi (AIChemE, PMIFT, PhD)
    Smart Material & Food Engineering Group (SMAFEG)
    Food Science Programme,
    School of Chemical Sciences & Food Technology,
    Faculty of Science & Technology,The National University of Malaysia,
    43600 UKM Bangi,
    Selangor, Malaysia
    Tel. No.: +603-89215989


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