• Widi Astuti Chemical Engineering Department, Semarang State University, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
  • Triastuti Sulistyaningsih Chemistry Department, Semarang State University, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
  • Masni Maksiola Chemical Engineering Department, Semarang State University, Semarang 50229, Indonesia



Kapok sawdust, methyl violet, dye, adsorbent, isotherm


In this study, chemically modified Kapok sawdust was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters including pH, contact time, and initial concentration for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for methyl violet removal was 5. A greater percentage of dye was removed with a decrease in the initial concentration of dye. Quasi-equilibrium reached in 30 min. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations using correlation coefficients and two different error functions. Freundlich equation is found to best represent the equilibrium data for methyl violet-modified Kapok sawdust system.

Author Biographies

  • Widi Astuti, Chemical Engineering Department, Semarang State University, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
    Chemical Engineering Department
  • Triastuti Sulistyaningsih, Chemistry Department, Semarang State University, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
    Chemistry Department
  • Masni Maksiola, Chemical Engineering Department, Semarang State University, Semarang 50229, Indonesia
    Chemical Engineering Department


Hanafiah, M. A. K. M., Ngah, W. S. W., Zolkafly, S. H., Teong, L.C., and Majid, Z. A. A. 2012. Acid Blue 25 Adsorption on Base Treated Shorea Dasyphylla Sawdust: Kinetic, Isotherm, Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Analysis. Journal of Environmental Science. 24(2): 261-268.

Tan, L., He, M., Song, L. Fu, X., and Shi, S. 2016. Aerobic Decolorization, Degradation and Detoxification of Azo Dyes by A Newly Isolated Salt Tolerant Yeast Scheffersomyces Spartinae TLHS-SF1. Bioresource Technology. 203: 287-294.

Liu, W., Liu, L., Lieu, C., Hao, Y., Yang, H., Yuan, B., and Jiang, J. 2016. Methylene Blue Enhances The Anaerobic Decolorization and Detoxication of Azo Dye by Shewanella onediensis MR-1. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 110: 115-124.

Guo, J., Zhang, Q., Cai, Z., and Zhao, K. 2016. Preparation and Dye Filtration Property of Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate-Calcium Alginate/Carbon Nanotubes Composite Nanofibrous Filtration Membrane. Separation and Purification Technology. 161: 69-79.

Li, H., Liu, S., Zhao, J., and Feng, N. 2016. Removal of Reactive Dyes from Wastewater Assisted with Kaolin Clay by Magnesium Hydroxide Coagulation Process. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 494: 222-227.

Gao, Y., Xu, S., Yue, Q., Wu, Y., and Gao, B. 2016. Chemical Preparation of Crab Shell Based Activated Carbon With Superior Adsorption Performance for Dye Removal from Wastewater. Journal of The Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 61: 327-335.

Ahmed, M. J. 2016. Application of Agricultural Based Activated Carbon by Microwave and Conventional Activations for Basic Dye Adsorption: Review. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 4(1): 89-99.

Liu, F., Guo, Z., Ling, H., Huang, Z., and Tang, D. 2016. Effect of Pore Structure on The Adsorption of Aqueous Dyes to Ordered Mesoporous Carbons. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 227: 104-111.

Li, S. 2010. Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution by Sorption into Semi-Interpenetrated Networks Hydrogels Constituted of Poly(acrylic Acid-Acrylamide-Methacrylate and Amylose. Bioresource Technology. 101: 2197-2202.

Ofomaja, A. E., and Ho, Y. S. 2008. Effect of Temperatures and pH on Methyl Violet Biosorption by Mansonia Wood Sawdust. Bioresource Technology. 99: 5411-5417.

Zou, W., Bai, H., Gao, S., and Li, K. 2013. Characterization of Modified Sawdust, Kinetic and Equilibrium Study about Methylene Blue Adsorption in Batch Mode. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 30(1): 111-122.

Sciban, M., Klasnja, M., and Skrbic, B. 2006. Modified Hardwood Sawdust as Adsorbent of Heavy Metal Ions from Water. Wood Science and Technology. 40: 217-227.

Argun, M. E., Dursun, S., Ozdemir, C., and Kaatas, M. 2007. Heavy Metal Adsorption by Modified Oak Sawdust: Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 141: 77-85.

Kumar, P. S., Ramalingam, S., Senthamarai, C., Niranjanaa, M., Vijayalakshmi, P., and Sivanes, S. 2010. Adsorption of Dye from Aqueous Solution by Cashew Nut Shell: Studies on Equilibrium Isotherm, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Interactions. Desalination. 261: 52-69.

Li, Q., Zhai, J., Zhang, W., Wang, M., and Zhou, J. 2007. Kinetic Studies of Adsorption of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution by Sawdust and Modified Peanut Husk. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 141: 163-167.

Njoku, V.O., Foo, K.Y., Asif, M., and Hameed, B.H. 2014. Preparation of Activated Carbons from Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum) Peel by Microwave-Induced KOH Activation for Acid Yellow 17 Dye Adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal. 250: 198-204.

Han, R., Zhang, L., Song, C., Zhang, M., Zhu, H., and Zhang, L. 2010. Characterization of Modified Wheat Straw, Kinetic and Equilibrium Study about Copper Ion and Methylene Blue Adsorption in Batch Mode. Carbohydrate Polymers. 79: 1140-1149.

Ozacar, M., and Sengil, I. A. 2005. Adsorption of Metal Complex Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Pine Sawdust. Bioresource Technology. 96: 791-795.

Rabago, J.J.S. and Ramos, R.L. 2016. Novel Biosorbent with High Adsorption Capacity Prepared by Chemical Modification of White Pine (Pinus Durangensis) Sawdust. Adsorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions, Journal of Environmental Management. 169: 303-312.

Rafatullah, M., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., and Ahmad, A. 2012. Removal of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption using Meranti Wood. Wood Science and Technology. 46: 221-241.

Wang, Z., Bo, N., Liu, Y., Yang, G., Liu, Y., and Zhao, Y. 2013. Preparation of Lignin Based Anion Exchangers and Their Utilization for Nitrate Removal. BioResources. 8(3): 3505-3517.

Sastrohamidjojo, H. 1992. Spektroskopi Inframerah. Liberty. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Khattri, S. D., and Singh, M. K. 2000. Colour Removal from Synthetic Dye Wastewater using a Bioadsorbent. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 120: 283-294.

Anirudhan, T.S., and Ramachandran, M. 2015. Adsorptive Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Surfactant Modified bentonite Clay (Organoclay): Kinetic and Competitive Adsorption Isotherm. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 25: 215-225.






Science and Engineering

How to Cite