• Muhamad Hellmy Hussin Fabrication and Joining, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Institute (UNIKL MFI), Seksyen 14, Jalan Teras Jernang, 43650 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Azida Che Lah Fabrication and Joining, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Institute (UNIKL MFI), Seksyen 14, Jalan Teras Jernang, 43650 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia



XPS, SEM, XRD, welded joint, oxidation, oxide growth


Surface sensitive electron spectroscopy was used to study the fundamental processes of high temperature oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to determine the oxide scale growth on oxidized fusion metal part of two different types of welded 6061 Al alloy, namely AA6061 ER4043 and AA6061 ER5356. Both welded joint were prepared using different filler metal which are ER4043 (Al-5%Si) and ER5356 (Al-5%Mg) respectively. XPS were used to investigate the chemical composition of the top surface of oxide scale that had been exposed to oxidation at 600oC for 40 hours. Furthermore, SEM and XRD were applied to characterize the cross-section of oxide scale and the phase present. The presence of Mg originating from filler metal addition was found to accelerate the oxidation process. Meanwhile, Si is expected to contribute as an agent in slowing down the oxidation process. It was significant due to the nature of Si itself which is less reactive and has ceramic properties than Mg. 


Zahr, J., Oswald, S., Turpe, M., Ullrich, H.J., & Fussel, U. 2011. Characterisation of Oxide and Hydroxide Layers on Technoca: Aluminum Materials Using XPS. Vacuum. 1-4.

Frerichs, M., Voigts, F., Fredrichs, W. M. 2006. Fundamental Processes of Aluminum Corrosion Studied Under Ultra High Vacuum Conditions. Applied Surface Science. 253: 950-958.

Do, T., McIntyre, N. S., Van der Heide, P. A. W. 1999. The Oxidation Kinetics of Mg-, Si- and Fe- Implanted Aluminum By Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Surface Science. 765-769.

Asta, M. P., Perez-Lopez, R., Roman-Ross, G., Illera, V., Cama, J., Cotte, M., Tucoulou, R. 2013. Analysis of the Iron Coatings Formed During Marcasite and Arsenopyrite Oxidation at Neutral-Alkaline Conditions. Geologica Acta. 11: 465-481.

Chelgani, S. C., Hart, B., Biesinger, M., Marois, J., Ourriban, M. 2013. Pyrochlore Surface Oxidation in Relation to Matrix Fe Composition: A Study by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Minerals Engineering. 55: 165-171.

Rokosz, K., Hryniewicz, T., Matysek, D., Raaen, S., Valicek, J., Dudek, L., Harnicarova, M. 2013. SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium After Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate. Materials. 9: 1-12.

Cimino, A., Gazzoli, D., & Valigi, M. 1999. XPS Quantitative Analysis and Models of Supported Oxide Catalysts. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. 104: 1-29.

Jeurgens, L. P. H., Vinodh, M. S., Mittermeijer, E. J. 2008. Initial Oxide-Film Growth on Mg-based MgAl Alloys at Room Temperature. Acta Materialia. 56: 4621-4634.

Ng, D. H. L., Zhao, Q., Qin, C., Ho, M., & Hong, Y. 2001. Formation of Aluminum/Alumina Ceramic Matrix Composite by Oxidizing an Al-Si-Mg Alloy. Journal of European Ceramic Society. 21: 1049-1053.

Chen, Y. J., Wei, P. S. 2007. Diagnosis and Analysis of Oxide Films in Cast Magnesium Alloys by Ultrasonic-Vibration Treatment. Materials Transactions. 48(12): 3181-3189.

Kowalska, J., Gopinath, C. S. 2014. Mapping of Copper Oxidation State Using High Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Acta Physica Polonica A. 125: 1065-1066.

Esfahani, F. A., Sarafbidabad, M. 2016. Evaluation of Corrosion Rate and Surface Oxides Formed of Zr-2.5%Nb As An Implant Material in Ringer’s Solution. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 9(6): 1-4.

Panda, E., Jeurgens, L. P. H., Mittemeijer, E. J. 2010. Growth Kinetics and Mechanism of the Initial Oxidation of Al-based Al-Mg Alloys. Corrosion Science. 52: 2556-2564.

Do, T., McIntyre, N. S. 1999. Pressure Effects on Aluminum Oxidation Kinetics Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Parallel Factor Analysis. Surface Science. 440: 438-450.

Do, T., Splinter, S. J., Chen, C., McIntyre, N. S. 1997. The Oxidation Kinetics of Mg and Al Surfaces Studied by AES and XPS. Surface Science. 387: 192-198.

Hanadjev, M., Vulic, T., Marinkovic-Neducin, R., Suchorski, Y., & Weiss, H. 2008. The Iron Oxidation State in Mg-Al-Fe Mixed Oxides Derived From Layered Double Hydroxides: An XPS study. Applied Surface Science. 254: 4297-4302.

Pan, C., Li, W., Jiang, S. 2005. Study on The XPS-ESCA of Aluminum Phosphide Products. International Journal of Molecular Science. 6: 198-202.

Moulder, J. F., Stickle, W. F., Sobol, P. E., & Bomben, K. D. 1992. Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data. Perkin-Elmer Corporation: United States of America. ISBN: 0-9627026-2-5.

Chang, S. Y., Jung, S. K., Jang, A. C., Moo, H. K., Young, J. K., Jeong, G. C., & Geung, T. K. 2000. XPS Study of Aluminum Oxides Deposited on PET Thin Film. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 6: 149-156.

Arranz, A., Palacio, C. 1996. Characterisation of The Surface and Interface Species Formed During the Oxidation of Aluminum. Surface Science. 355: 203-213.

Kimura, Y., Takeda, K., Kondoh, M., Shibata, M., Katayama, T., & Kanie, H. 1997. Reduction Mechanism of Surface Oxide in Aluminum Alloy Powders Containing Magnesium Studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Synchrotron Radiation. Applied Physics Letters. 70(26): 3615 -3617.

Nightingale, S., Monaghan, B.J. 2008. Kinetics of Spinel Formation and Growth During Dissolution of MgO in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 Slag. Metallurgy and Materials Transaction B. 39B: 643-648.

Nylund, A., Mizumo, K., Olefjord, I. 1998. Influence of Mg and Si on The Oxidation of Aluminum. Oxidation of Metals. 50( ¾): 309-325.






Science and Engineering

How to Cite