• Siti Nor Zawani Ahmmad Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Eileen Su Lee Ming Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Yeong Che Fai Centre of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CAIRO), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Suneet Sood Faculty of Medicine, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, 80100 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Anil Gandhi Faculty of Medicine, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, 80100 Johor Bahru, Malaysia




Psychomotor skills, assessment parameters, computer based measurements


The purpose of this study was to identify measurable parameters that can be used to quantitatively assess psychomotor skills, specifically for surgical skills assessment. Sixteen participants were recruited from two groups: surgeon (N = 5) and non-surgeon (N = 11). Both groups underwent a psychomotor test using a custom developed ‘Green Target’ module which was designed using a virtual reality system. Six parameters were used to compare the psychomotor skills between the two groups. The results showed that surgeons outperformed the non-surgeons in five out of six parameters investigated and the difference was statistically significant. The average normalised comparison values for surgeons and non-surgeons for motion path accuracy, motion path precision, economy of movement, end-point accuracy and end-point precision were 0.13+0.12 and 0.17+0.12, 0.08+0.11 and 0.10+0.10, 3.76+1.76 and 4.08+2.24, 0.12+0.10 and 0.17+0.11, 0.04+0.10 and 0.07+0.10 respectively, p < 0.05). These parameters can potentially be used to objectively assess the performance of surgical skill.  


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Science and Engineering

How to Cite

OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT FOR SURGICAL SKILL EVALUATION. (2016). Jurnal Teknologi, 78(7-5). https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v78.9461