• Aliyu Bello A. Faculty of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Arshad Ahmad Faculty of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Adnan Ripin Faculty of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Olagoke Oladokun Faculty of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Moisture content, pineapple juice, energy balance, diffusion, spray drying


The moisture contents of powders is an important parameter that affects the quality and commercial value of spray dried products. The utility of predicted moisture content values from two droplet drying models were compared with experimental data for spray dried pineapple juice, using the Ranz-Marshal and its modified variants for the heat and mass transfer correlations. The droplet Diffusion model, using the Zhifu correlation, gave estimates with errors of about 8% at 165 oC, 9% at 171 oC, 26% at 179 oC and 2% at 185 oC. The Ranz-Marshal correlation also gave comparable results with this model while results using the Downing and modified Ranz-Marshall correlations widely diverged. The Energy balance model predicted completely dried juice particles, and short drying times, in contrast to the experimental data. The small error sizes of the Diffusion model improves on the wide error sizes of an earlier process model, making is useful as a first approximation choice, for spray drier design and simulation, especially for juices under comparable operating conditions.


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