• Rose Nadia School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Rosli Saad School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Nordiana Muztaza School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Nur Azwin Ismail School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Mohd Mokhtar Saidin Center for Archeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia



Correlation, soil strength, P-wave velocity


In this study, correlation is made between seismic P-wave velocities (Vp) with standard penetration test (SPT-N) values to produce soil parameter estimation for engineering site applications. A seismic refraction tomography (SRT) line of 69 m length was spread across two boreholes with 3 m geophones spacing. The acquired data were processed using Firstpix, SeisOpt2D and surfer8 software. The Vp at particular depths were pinpointed and correlated with geotechnical parameters (SPT-N values) from the borehole records. The correlation between Vp and SPT-N values has been established. For cohesive soils, it is grouped into three categories according to consistencies; stiff, very stiff and hard, having velocity rangesof 575-314 m/s, 808-1483 m/s and 1735-2974 m/s, respectively. For non-cohesive soils, it is also divided into three categories based on the denseness as loose, medium dense and dense with Vp ranges of 528-622 m/s, 900-2846 m/s and 2876-2951 m/s, respectively


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