• Hasan Mohd Faizal Automotive Development Centre, Institute for Vehicle System and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman Department of Mechanical, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, 57000 Kem Sg. Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Z. A. Latiff Automotive Development Centre, Institute for Vehicle System and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Palm biomass, densification, briquette, pelletization, power plant, vehicle system


Due to the tremendous amount of palm biomass residues produced during the palm oil extraction from fresh fruit bunch (FFB), it is inevitable to harness these biomass energy sources to cope with the depletion of fossil fuels and increase in global energy demand scenarios. Densification is one of the favourable techniques to improve the storage and transportation of biomass fuels in order to prevent dumped areas adjacent to palm mills and to prevent from becoming another waste product. This article reviews comprehensively on how type of palm biomass, compaction pressure and temperature, binder, pre- and post-treatments affect the physical and combustion properties of the palm biomass briquettes produced. Based on the previous researches, generally it can be said that the type of palm biomass, the compaction pressure and temperature, and type of binder affect both the physical and combustion performance of densified palm biomass. However, the effect of particle size could be observed only on the physical characteristics of densified products, whereas the effect on the combustion properties remains unclear. In addition, treatments such as pyrolysis, dry and wet torrefaction (hydrothermal treatment), and steam explosion have potential to be applied during briquette production in order to improve the combustion properties. In this review article, it is also suggested that the combination of densification and followed by wet torrefaction will enhance the combustion properties of palm biomass briquettes.      


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