• Mohammed Hassan Electromechanical Engineering, University of Technology, Iraq
  • S. Syahrullail Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Farid Nasir Ani Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Cactus oil, volumetric blending ratio, wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction


The oil derived from vegetables has been seen as an alternative to mineral oils for lubricants because of certain inherent technical properties, renewable source and their abilities to biodegrade. Vegetable oil is known to have a high viscosity index with a higher lubricity value compared to mineral oil. Despite its potentiality as a candidate alternative, vegetable oil has several limitations. It has a low wear resistance, and it is highly sensitive to temperatures with tribological characteristics. The majority of technical solutions, including additivation, chemical alterations, and blending, are being proposed as means of overcoming the listed limitations. This study seeks to investigate the characteristics of cactus oil with respect to its use as a bio-lubricant as well as the characteristics of environmentally friendly vegetable oil when they are mixed with mineral oils as alternative oil for petroleum, using the four-ball tribotester. The volumetric blending ratio was varied (20% to 80%) and these blends were performed at 1200 rpm, for one hour, with 40 kg of load at a temperature of 75ºC (ASTM D4172-B) standard. According to the results, it was found that the lowest wear scar diameter was 431.23µm, which was identified in the blend of 20% cactus oil with 80% mineral oil which symbolized by (CC20%), compared to that of neat cactus oil at 669.16 µm and mineral oil at 546.46 µm.In addition, the result also indicates that a 80% addition of cactus oil, the coefficient of friction tends to decrease compared to the values of neat cactus oil. Finally, it is concluded, the blends of cactus oil with commercial lubricant oil have better performance compared to commercial lubricant oil or neat cactus oil.


Delgado, M. A., Quinchia, L. A. and Galegos, C. 2010. Viscosity Modification of Different Vegetable Oil with EVA Copolymer for Lubricant Applicants. Industrial Crops and Products. 32: 607-612.

Nik, W. W., Ani, F. N., and Masjuki, H. H. 2005. Rheology of Bio-edible Oils According to Several Rheological Models and Its Potential as Hydraulic Fluid. Ind Crops and Prod. 22: 249-255.

Nik, W. W., Ani, F. N.,and Masjuki, H. H. 2005. Thermal Stability Evaluation of Palm Oil a As Energy Transport Media. Ener Conv Manage. 46: 2198-2215.

Nik, W. W., Maleque, M. A., Ani, F. N., and Masjuki, H. H. 2007. Experimental Investigation on System Performance Using Palm Oil as Hydraulic Fluid. Ind Lubric Tribol. 59: 200-208.

Jabal, M. H., Ani, F. N.,and Syahrullail, S. 2014.The Tribological Characteristic of the Blends of RBD Palm Olein with Mineral Oil using Four-ball Tribotester. Jurnal Teknologi. 69(6): 11-14.

Nosonovsky, M. 2000. Oil as a Lubricant in the Ancient Middle East. Tribology Online. 2(2): 44-49.

Kalin, M., and Vizintin, J. 2006. A Comparison of the Tribology Behaviour of Steel/steel, steel/DLC and DLC/DLC Contacts when Lubricated with Mineral and Biodegradable Oil. Wear. 261: 22-31.

Golshokouh, I., Syahrullail, S., Ani, F. N., and Masjuki, H. H. 2014. Investigation of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Oil as an Alternative to Petrochemical Based Lubricant. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 26(1): 25-36.

Figueroa, M., García, E., Hernández, E. A., and Vite-Torres, M. 2014. Friction and Wear of Jatropha Curcas Oil Using a Four Balls Tester. Advanced Materials Research. 902: 76-81.

Golshokouh, I., Golshokouh, M., Ani, F. N., Kianpour, E., and Syahrullail, S. 2013. Investigation of the Physical Properties for Jatropha Oil in Different Temperature as Lubricant Oil. Life Science Journal.10: 110-119.

Thorp, J. M. 1975. Four-ball Assessment of Deep Drawing Oils. Wear. 33: 93-108.

Masjuki, H. H.,and Maleque, M. A. 1997. Investigation of the Anti-wear Characteristics of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) Contaminated with Lube Oil using a Four-ball Machine of IP239 Standard. Wear. 206: 179-186.

Ing, C. T., Mohammed Rafiq, A. K., Azli,Y., and Syahrullail, S. 2012. The Effect of Temperature on the Tribological Behavior of RBD Palm Stearin. Tribology Transactions. 55(5): 539-548.

Shahabuddin, M., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., Bhuiya, M. M. K., and Mehat, H. 2013. Comparative Tribological Investigation of Bio-Lubricant Formulated from a Non-Edible Oil Source (Jatropha oil). Industrial Crops and Products. 47: 323-330.

Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., Nurul, M. F., Jayed, M. H., Liaquat, A. M., and Varman, M. 2011. Environmentally Friendly Bio-Lubricant Lubricity Testing. Proceedings in Clean Energy and Technology (CET). 27-29 June 2011. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. IEEE: 140-144.

Haseeb, S. Y. S., Fazal, M. A., and Masjuki, H. H. 2010. Effect of Temperature on Tribological Properties of Palm Biodiesel. Energy. 35: 1460-1464.

Resul, M. F. M. G., Ghazi, T. I. M., and Idris, A. 2012. Kinetic Study of Jatropha Bio Lubricant from Trans Esterification of Jatropha Curcas Oil with Trimethylolpropane: Effects of temperature. Industrial Crops and Products. 38: 87-92.

Liaquat, A. M., Masjuki, H. H., Kalam, M. A., and Rasyidi, A. 2012. Experimental Analysis of Wear and Friction Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Added Lubricants. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 110: 914-919.




How to Cite