• Hasan Mohd Faizal Automotive Development Centre (ADC), Institute for Vehicle System and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • M. Amin M. Jusoh Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman Department of Mechanical, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, 57000 Kem Sg. Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • S. Syahrullail Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Z. A. Latiff Automotive Development Centre (ADC), Institute for Vehicle System and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Torrefaction, palm biomass, EFB, briquette, pellet, power plant, vehicle system


The climate change has driven towards transformation from the high energy dependence on fossil fuel to inexhaustible renewable energy such as solar, wind, mini hydro and biomass. In Malaysia, abundant of palm biomass residues are produced during the processing of fresh fruit bunch. Therefore it is inevitable to harness these bioenergy sources in order to prevent waste accumulation at adjacent to palm mills. In order to utilize such bioenergy sources and to cope with the fast growing demand of energy, combination technique of densification and torrefaction is one of the potential ways to be practised. In the present study, the physical and combustion properties of torrefied empty  fruit bunch (EFB) briquettes were investigated experimentally with constant nitrogen flow rate of 1 l/min , for various torrefaction temperatures (225-300). Before torrefaction process, EFB briquettes were initially produced under controlled condition with compaction pressure of 7 MPa and briquetting temperature of 150. In general, the torrefied EFB briquettes were successfully produced in the present study. The results show that an increase in torrefaction temperature from 225  to 300  causes a significant increase in gross calorific value (from around 17400 kJ/kg to 25000 kJ/kg), fixed carbon content (from 16.2% to 46.2%) and ash content (from 2.4% to 17.2%). On the other hand, relaxed density and volatile matter decrease, from 1017 kg/m3 to 590 kg/m3 and from 73.1% to 29.7%, respectively. As a conclusion, the gross calorific value and fixed carbon content are improved due to torrefaction. In addition, it was found that gross calorific value and moisture content of the torrefied EFB briquettes fulfil the requirement for commercial briquette production as stated by DIN51731 (gross calorific value>17500 kJ/kg and moisture content <10%). 


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