• Nur Shazwani Muhammad Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor
  • Amieroul Iefwat Akashah Carta Indah Sdn. Bhd., Kedah
  • Jazuri Abdullah Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor



Extreme rainfall indices, trend of extreme event, Mann-Kendall test, monsoon rainfall


Extreme rainfall events are the main cause of flooding. This study aimed to examine seven extreme rainfall indices, i.e. extreme rain sum (XRS), very wet day intensity (I95), extremely wet day intensity (I99), very wet day proportion (R95), extremely wet day proportion (R99), very wet days (N95) and extremely wet days (N99) using Mann-Kendall (MK) and the normalized statistic Z tests. The analyses are based on the daily rainfall data gathered from Bayan Lepas, Subang, Senai, Kuantan and Kota Bharu. The east coast states received more rainfall than any other parts in Peninsular Malaysia. Kota Bharu station recorded the highest XRS, i.e. 648 mm. The analyses also indicate that the stations in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia experienced higher XRS, I95, I99, R95 and R99 as compared to the stations located in the western and northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Subang and Senai show the highest number of days for wet and very wet (N95) as compared to other stations. Other than that, all stations except for Kota Bharu show increasing trends for most of the extreme rainfall indices. Upward trends indicate that the extreme rainfall events were becoming more severe over the period of 1960 to 2014. 


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