• Muhammad Roslan Rahim Department of Aeronautical, Automotive & Ocean Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar Institute for Vehicle Systems and Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Emissions, Double Radial swirler, Combustion, Flame length


Formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and other emissions is increasing dramatically in the atmosphere. Due to this pressing issue, a study on combustion performance was conducted using a double radial swirler. In this study, a weak swirler with an angle of 30º is set as a primary swirler and strong swirlers each with an angle of 40º, 50º and 60º are set as secondary swirler. Combinations of these swirlers have increased internal recirculation of hot air and help to complete the mixing of fuel and air during combustion. Results show that the combination of 30º/60º swirler produced the best, more stable and shorter flame than the other combinations. Formation of NOX from the 30º/60º swirlers at equivalence ratio of 0.8333 is 27.3% lower than that from the combined 30º/40º swirlers. Other emissions such as CO, CO2 and UHC (Unburned Hydrocarbons) also show a reduction of 12.71%, 10.6% and 5.3%, respectively in the 30º/60º swirlers compared to those from the 30º/40º swirlers.


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