• Zaima Azira Zainal Abidin Department of Biotechnology, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Asmat Ahmad School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Jalifah Latip School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Gires Usup School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia



Marine Streptomyces, undecylprodigiosin, antibacterial, algicidal


Marine actinomycetes are now in demand as they are capable of producing unique and novel compounds with wide biological activities. Marine Streptomyces sp. UKMCC_PT15  previously isolated from seawater collected in Pulau Tinggi, Johor was used in this study. Molecular identification showed high similarity of Streptomyces sp. UKMCC_PT15 with Streptomyces fradiae and S. diastaticus subsp. ardesiacus based on partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Further characterisations of this bacterium include spore morphology using SEM, growth on various media, salt tolerance test and carbon utilisation profile. This bacterium had straight spore chain with smooth-surfaced spores and was able to tolerate up to 11% NaCl with capabilities of utilising >40 carbon sources.  Undecylprodigiosin (C25H35N3O) was successfully purified through succession of column chromatography and finally using HPLC. Structure elucidation was confirmed through NMR spectroscopy, MS and comparison with established data. This compound demonstrated strong antibacterial activities against S. aureus, B. subtilis and C. albicans but weak antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Interestingly, undecylprodigiosin also demonstrated algicidal activity when tested against toxic dinoflagellates, A. minutum and P. bahamense, both of which are responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs). Undecylprodiogiosin with concentration of 10-100 μg/ml gave ~100% algicidal activity against both dinoflagellates. Further testing with undecylprodigiosin concentration < 10 µg/ml showed that undecylprodigision was capable of killing significantly high numbers of both dinoflagellates, giving a high algicidal activity. Findings from this study suggested the potential use of undecylprodigiosin as algicidal agent which could be used for the mitigation of HABs


Berdy, J. 2005. Bioactive Microbial Metabolites. Journal of Antibiotics. 58(1):1–26.

Baltz, R. 2008. Renaissance in Antibacterial Discovery from Actinomycetes. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 8: 1-7.

Subramani, R. and Aalsberg, W. 2012. Marine Actinomycetes: An Ongoing Source of Novel Bioactive Metabolites. Microbiological Research. 167(10):571–580.

Motohashi, K., Takagi, M. and Shin-ya, K. 2010. Tetracenoquinocin and 5-Iminoaranciamycin from A Sponge-derived Streptomyces sp. Sp080513GE-26. Journal of Natural Products. 73: (4):755–758.

Pérez, M., Crespo, C., Schleissner, C., Rodríguez, P., Zúñiga, P. and Reyes, F. 2009. Tartrolon D, A Cytotoxic Macrodiolide from the Marine-derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. MDG-04-17-069. Journal of Natural Products. 72: 2192–2194.

Dharmaraj, S. 2010. Marine Streptomyces as A Novel Source of Bioactive Substances. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 26: 2123-2139.

Hughes C.C., Kauffman, C.A., Jensen, P.R. and Fenical, W. 2010. Structures, Reactivities, and Antibiotic Properties of the Marinopyrroles A−F. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 75 (10): 3240–3250.

Cho, J.Y., Kwon, H.C., Williams, P.G., Kauffman, C.A., Jensen, P.R. and Fenical, W. 2006. Actinofuranones A and B, Polyketides from A Marine-derived Bacterium Related to the Genus Streptomyces (Actinomycetales). Journal of Natural Products. 69(3): 425–428.

An, X., Zahou, R., Zhang, H., Li, Y., Zheng, Yu, Z., Fu, L. and Zheng, T. 2015. Discovery of An Algicidal Compound from Brevibacterium sp. BS01 and Its Effect on A Harmful Algal Bloom-causing Species Alexandrium tamarense. Frontiers of Microbiology.

Somdee, T., Sumalai, N. and Somdee, A. 2013. A novel Actinomycete Streptomyces aurantiogriseus with algicidal activity against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Journal of Applied Phycology. 25(5): 1587-1594.

Bai, S.J., Huang, L., Su, J.Q., Tian, Y. and Zheng, T. L. 2011. Algicidal Effects of a Novel Marine Actinomycete on the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Current Microbiology. 62(6): 1774-1781.

Lim, P.T., Usup, G. and Leaw, C.P. 2012. Harmful Algal Blooms in Malaysian Waters. Sains Malaysiana 41(12): 1509–1515.

Kirby-Bauer, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C. and Turck, M. 1966. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing by A Standard Single Disk Method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 36: 493–496.

Liu, R., Cui, C.-B., Duan, L. Gu, Q.-Q. and Zhu, W.-M. 2005. Potent In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Metacycloprodigiosin and Undecylprodigiosin from A Sponge-derived Actinomycete Saccharopolyspora sp. nov. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 28(12): 1341-1344.

Stankovic, N., Senerovic, L., Ilic-Tomic, T., Vasiljevic, B. and Nikodinovic-Runic, J. 2014. Properties and Applications of Undecylprodigiosin and Other Bacterial Prodigiosins. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 98:3841–3858.

Williamson, N.R., Fineran, P.C., Leeper, F. and Salmond, G.P.C. 2006. The Biosynthesis and Regulation of Bacterial Prodiginines. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4(12): 887-899.

Luti, K.J.K. and Mavituna, F. 2010. Streptomyces coelicolor Increases the Production of Undecylprodigiosin When interacted with Bacillus subtilis. Biotechnology Letters. 33(1): 113-118.

Stankovic, N., Radulovic, V., Petkovic, M., Vuckovic. I., Jadranin, M. Vasiljevic, B. and Nikodinovic-Runic,J. 2012. Streptomyces sp. JS520 Produces Exceptionally High Quantities of Undecylprodigiosin with Antibacterial, Antioxidative and UV-protective Properties. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 96:1217–1231.

Silhavy, T. J., Kahne, D. and Walker. 2010. The Bacterial Cell Envelope. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2:1-31.

Pages, J. 2004. Role of Bacterial Porins in Antibiotic Susceptibility of Gram-negative Bacteria. In Benz, R. (ed.). Bacterial and Eukaryotic Porins: Structure, Function, Mechanisms. (1st ed., pp. 41–59).Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.

Ho, T.F., Ma, C.J., Lu, C.H., Tsai, Y.T., Wei, Y.H., Chang, J.S., Lai, J.K., Cheuh, P.J., Yeh, C.T., Tang, P.C., Chang, J., Ko, J.L., Liu, F.S., Yen, H. and Chang, C.C. 2007. Undecylprodigiosin Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells Independent of p53. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 225:318–328.

Williamson, N. R., Fineran, P.C., Gristwood, T., Chawral, S.R., Leeper, F.J. and Salmond, G.P.C. 2007. Anticancer and Immunosuppressive Properties of Bacterial Prodiginines. Future Medicine 2(6): 605-618.

Papireddy, K., Smilkstein, M., Kelly, J.X., Salem , S.M., Alhamadsheh, M., Haynes, S.W., Challis, G.L. and Reynolds, K.A. 2011. Antimalarial Activity of Natural and Synthetic Prodiginines. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 54:5296–5306.

Nakashima, T., Miyazaki, Y., Matsuyama, Y., Muraoka, W., Yamaguchi, K. and Oda, T. 200). Producing Mechanism of An Algicidal Compound Against Red Tide Phytoplankton in a Marine Bacterium γ-proteobacterium. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 73:684–690.

Liu, B.Y., Wei, D.Z., Lu, S.R, Zhou, W.Y., Shen, Y.l.X.R. and Wang, J.H . 2010. Algicidal Activity of Prodigiosin Against Harmful Algae. China Environmental Science. 30:477–482

Manset, K.J.V., Azanza, R.V. and Onda, D.F.L. 2013. Algicidal Bacteria from Fish Culture Areas in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Norhern Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management. Special Issue 1.

Wang, B., Yang, X.R., Lu, J. Zhou, Y., Su, J., Tian, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, G. and Zheng, T. 2012. A Marine Bacterium Producing Protein with Algicidal Activity Against Alexandrium tamarense. Harmful Algae. 13: 83-88




How to Cite