COASTAL EROSION INDEX USING AHP AND ANN FOR COASTAL MANAGER

Authors

  • Wan Norshuhada Wan Khairuddin Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Shuib Rambat Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/mjce.v34.17992

Keywords:

Coastal Erosion, Coastal Erosion Causes, Coastal Erosion in Terengganu, AHP Analysis, ANN Analysis

Abstract

Coastal erosion can be found on almost all of Malaysia's beaches, but it is particularly prevalent on the country's east coast. The problem of coastal erosion has been resolved through the use of a variety of methods and treatments that are tailored to the severity of the erosion. It is critical for coastal managers and responsible agencies to have an index of erosion that can be used as a guide in determining the level of erosion in a given area in order to design the appropriate mitigation and treatment measures. It is necessary to identify and categorize the factors contributing to coastal erosion. This study employed a literature review and expert feedback questionnaires to identify the primary factors contributing to coastal erosion. This paper put forward the combining method of the AHP and neural network for evaluating the weights of each influential parameter to coastal erosion. As a result of the analysis, AHP discovered that coastal structure was the most influential factor influencing coastal erosion, followed by human activity, waves, and wind with weights of 0.5333, 0.2404, 0.1804, and 0.0459, respectively, whereas ANN analysis also discovered that coastal structure was the most influential factor influencing erosion, followed by human activity, wind, and waves with weights of 0.612, 0.232, 0.082, and 0.074, respectively. Despite the fact that the results of the two analyses were quite different in terms of weights values, the results of both analyses allowed us to determine which factors are the most important in terms of erosion. The weighted application of these factors will be an additional guide to existing guidelines such as NCES and ISMP in evaluating appropriate coastal mitigation and planning strategies. The outcome of this study also able to enhance the coastal management in terms of being the early reference of coastal manager and stakeholders in developing or managing coastal areas.

References

Abuodha, P. A. O., & Woodroffe, C. D. 2010. Assessing vulnerability to sea-level rise using a coastal sensitivity index: A case study from southeast Australia. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 14(3): 189–205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-010-0097-0

Adler, M., & Ziglio, E. 1996. Gazing into the Oracle: The Delphi method and its application to social policy and public health (p. 252).

Al-harbi, K. M. A. (1990). The analytic hierarchy process. European Journal of Operational Research, 45(2–3): 378. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(90)90209-t

Asmawi, M. Z., & Ibrahim, A. N. 2013. The Perception of Community on Coastal Erosion Issue in Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, 1(3): 164–168. https://doi.org/10.7763/jocet.2013.v1.38

Awang, A., Aizam, N. A. H., & Abdullah, L. (2019). An integrated decision-making method based on neutrosophic numbers for investigating factors of coastal erosion. Symmetry, 11(3), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11030328

Boruff, B. J., Emrich, C., & Cutter, S. L. 2005. Erosion hazard vulnerability of US coastal counties. Journal of Coastal Research, 21(5): 932–942. https://doi.org/10.2112/04-0172.1

Calil, J., Reguero, B. G., Zamora, A. R., Losada, I. J., & Méndez, F. J. 2017. Comparative Coastal Risk Index (CCRI): A multidisciplinary risk index for Latin America and the Caribbean. PLoS ONE, 12(11): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187011

Chen, M., Challita, U., Saad, W., Yin, C., & Debbah, M. 2019. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Machine Learning for Wireless Networks: A Tutorial. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 21(4): 3039–3071. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2019.2926625

Chou, C. C., & Yu, K. W. 2013. Application of a new hybrid fuzzy AHP model to the location choice. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/592138

DID. 2015. National Coastal Erosion Study 2015. 1, ES 27.

Dong, Y., Xu, Y., Li, H., & Dai, M. 2008. A comparative study of the numerical scales and the prioritization methods in AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 186(1): 229–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2007.01.044

Dongare, A. D., Kharde, R. R., & Kachare, A. D. 2012. Introduction to Artificial Neural Network ( ANN ) Methods. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 2(1): 189–194.

Ghazali, N. H. M. 2006. Coastal erosion and reclamation in Malaysia. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 9(2): 237–247. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634980600721474

Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-nuñez, A. M., & Gray, W. M. 2014. All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Causes Activity : Implications. 293(5529): 474–479.

Hendriyono, W., Wibowo, M., Hakim, B. Al, & Istiyanto, D. C. 2015. Modeling of Sediment Transport Affecting the Coastline Changes due to Infrastructures in Batang - Central Java. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 14: 166–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2015.07.098

Hsu, T. W., Lin, T. Y., & Tseng, I. F. 2007. Human impact on coastal erosion in Taiwan. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(4): 961–973. https://doi.org/10.2112/04-0353R.1

Jonah, F. E., Mensah, E. A., Edziyie, R. E., Agbo, N. W., & Adjei-Boateng, D. 2016. Coastal Erosion in Ghana: Causes, Policies, and Management. Coastal Management, 44(2): 116–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2016.1135273

Kabir, G., & Hasin, M. A. A. 2013. Multi-criteria inventory classification through integration of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and artificial neural network. International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 14(1): 74–103. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJISE.2013.052922

Koks, E. E., Rozenberg, J., Zorn, C., Tariverdi, M., Vousdoukas, M., Fraser, S. A., Hall, J. W., & Hallegatte, S. 2019. A global multi-hazard risk analysis of road and railway infrastructure assets. Nature Communications, 10(1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10442-3

Koroglu, A., Ranasinghe, R., Jiménez, J. A., & Dastgheib, A. 2019. Comparison of Coastal Vulnerability Index applications for Barcelona Province. Ocean and Coastal Management, 178(November 2018): 104799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.05.001

Lecun, Y., Bengio, Y., & Hinton, G. 2015. Deep learning. Nature, 521(7553): 436–444. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14539

Mentaschi, L., Vousdoukas, M. I., Pekel, J. F., Voukouvalas, E., & Feyen, L. 2018. Global long-term observations of coastal erosion and accretion. Scientific Reports, 8(1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30904-w

Morais, D. C., & De Almeida, A. T. 2012. Group decision making on water resources based on analysis of individual rankings. Omega, 40(1): 42–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2011.03.005

Muslim, A. M., Ismail, K. I., Khalil, I., Razman, N., & Zain, K. 2011. Detection of shoreline changes at Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia from multi-temporal satellite sensor imagery. 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment - The GEOSS Era: Towards Operational Environmental Monitoring, April.

Ndour, A., Laïbi, R. A., Sadio, M., Degbe, C. G. E., Diaw, A. T., Oyédé, L. M., Anthony, E. J., Dussouillez, P., Sambou, H., & Dièye, E. hadji B. 2018. Management strategies for coastal erosion problems in west Africa: Analysis, issues, and constraints drawn from the examples of Senegal and Benin. Ocean and Coastal Management, 156: 92–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.09.001

Nobre, G. C., & Tavares, E. 2017. Scientific literature analysis on big data and internet of things applications on circular economy: a bibliometric study. Scientometrics, 111(1): 463–492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2281-6

Özcan, E., Danışan, T., Yumuşak, R., & Eren, T. 2020. An artificial neural network model supported with multi criteria decision making approaches for maintenance planning in hydroelectric power plants [Planowanie utrzymania ruchu w elektrowniach wodnych w oparciu o model sztucznej sieci neuronowej wsparty wi. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc, 22(3): 400–418.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85091887440&doi=10.17531%2Fein.2020.3.3&partnerID=40&md5=ebbc0edab173f165560f32b1469f8c74

Özyurt, G., & Ergin, A. 2010. Improving coastal vulnerability assessments to sea-level rise: A new indicator-based methodology for decision makers. Journal of Coastal Research, 26(2): 265–273. https://doi.org/10.2112/08-1055.1

Prasad, D. H., & Kumar, N. D. 2014. Coastal Erosion Studies—A Review. International Journal of Geosciences, 05(03): 341–345. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2014.53033

Prasetya, G. 2001. Chapter 4: Protection from coastal erosion. Coastal Protection in the Aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami: What Role for Forests and Trees? Proceedings of the Regional Technical Workshop, Khao Lak, Thailand, 28–31 August 2006, 103–132. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ag127e/AG127E00.htm

Rangel-Buitrago, N., Neal, W. J., & de Jonge, V. N. 2020. Risk assessment as tool for coastal erosion management. Ocean and Coastal Management, 186(January): 105099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105099

Rangel-Buitrago, N., Williams, A. T., & Anfuso, G. 2018. Hard protection structures as a principal coastal erosion management strategy along the Caribbean coast of Colombia. A chronicle of pitfalls. Ocean and Coastal Management, 156, 58–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.04.006

Rudiastuti, A. W., Rahadiati, A., Dewi, R. S., Soetrisno, D., & Maulana, E. 2020. Assessing coastal vulnerability index of tourism site: The case of Mataram Coast. E3S Web of Conferences, 153. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202015303002

Saadon, M. S. I., Ab Wahida, N. S., Othman, M. R., Nor, D. A. M., Mokhtar, F. S., Nordin, N., Kowang, T. O., & Nordin, L. 2020. An evaluation of the impact of coastal erosion to the environment and economic activities at mengabang telipot, Terengganu. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(8): 1132–1136. https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.08.238

Saaty, T. L. 2002. Decision making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Scientia Iranica, 9(3): 215–229. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijssci.2008.017590

Sheik Mujabar, P., & Chandrasekar, N. 2013. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability assessment for southern coastal Tamil Nadu of India by using remote sensing and GIS. Natural Hazards, 69(3): 1295–1314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9962-x

Temmerman, S., Meire, P., Bouma, T. J., Herman, P. M. J., Ysebaert, T., & De Vriend, H. J. 2013. Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change. Nature, 504(7478): 79–83. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12859

Vagropoulos, S. I., Kardakos, E. G., Simoglou, C. K., Bakirtzis, A. G., & Catalão, J. P. S. 2016. ANN-based scenario generation methodology for stochastic variables of electric power systems. Electric Power Systems Research, 134: 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2015.12.020

Williams, A. T., Rangel-Buitrago, N., Pranzini, E., & Anfuso, G. 2018. The management of coastal erosion. Ocean and Coastal Management, 156: 4–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.03.022

Yee Ling, S., Veerasamy, K., Hidayat Jamal, M., & Shahrizal Ab Razak, M. 2019. Preliminary Modelling Assessment of Hydrodynamic Simulation due to Terengganu Airport Runway Extension. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 357(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/357/1/012036

Zhang, K., Douglas, B. C., & Leatherman, S. P. 2000) Twentieth-century storm activity along the U.S. East Coast. Journal of Climate, 13(10): 1748–1761. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1748:TCSAAT>2.0.CO;2

Zulfakar, M. S. Z., Akhir, M. F., Ariffin, E. H., Awang, N. A., Yaacob, M. A. M., Chong, W. S., & Muslim, A. M. 2020. The effect of coastal protections on the shoreline evolution at Kuala Nerus, Terengganu (Malaysia). Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 15(3): 71–85.

Adler, M., & Ziglio, E. 1996. Gazing into the Oracle: The Delphi method and its application to social policy and public health (p. 252).

Al-harbi, K. M. A. (1990). The analytic hierarchy process. European Journal of Operational Research, 45(2–3): 378. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(90)90209-t

Asmawi, M. Z., & Ibrahim, A. N. 2013. The Perception of Community on Coastal Erosion Issue in Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, 1(3): 164–168. https://doi.org/10.7763/jocet.2013.v1.38

Awang, A., Aizam, N. A. H., & Abdullah, L. (2019). An integrated decision-making method based on neutrosophic numbers for investigating factors of coastal erosion. Symmetry, 11(3), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11030328

Boruff, B. J., Emrich, C., & Cutter, S. L. 2005. Erosion hazard vulnerability of US coastal counties. Journal of Coastal Research, 21(5): 932–942. https://doi.org/10.2112/04-0172.1

Calil, J., Reguero, B. G., Zamora, A. R., Losada, I. J., & Méndez, F. J. 2017. Comparative Coastal Risk Index (CCRI): A multidisciplinary risk index for Latin America and the Caribbean. PLoS ONE, 12(11): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187011

Chen, M., Challita, U., Saad, W., Yin, C., & Debbah, M. 2019. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Machine Learning for Wireless Networks: A Tutorial. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 21(4): 3039–3071. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2019.2926625

Chou, C. C., & Yu, K. W. 2013. Application of a new hybrid fuzzy AHP model to the location choice. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/592138

DID. 2015. National Coastal Erosion Study 2015. 1, ES 27.

Dong, Y., Xu, Y., Li, H., & Dai, M. 2008. A comparative study of the numerical scales and the prioritization methods in AHP. European Journal of Operational Research, 186(1): 229–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2007.01.044

Dongare, A. D., Kharde, R. R., & Kachare, A. D. 2012. Introduction to Artificial Neural Network ( ANN ) Methods. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 2(1): 189–194.

Ghazali, N. H. M. 2006. Coastal erosion and reclamation in Malaysia. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 9(2): 237–247. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634980600721474

Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-nuñez, A. M., & Gray, W. M. 2014. All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Causes Activity : Implications. 293(5529): 474–479.

Hendriyono, W., Wibowo, M., Hakim, B. Al, & Istiyanto, D. C. 2015. Modeling of Sediment Transport Affecting the Coastline Changes due to Infrastructures in Batang - Central Java. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 14: 166–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2015.07.098

Hsu, T. W., Lin, T. Y., & Tseng, I. F. 2007. Human impact on coastal erosion in Taiwan. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(4): 961–973. https://doi.org/10.2112/04-0353R.1

Jonah, F. E., Mensah, E. A., Edziyie, R. E., Agbo, N. W., & Adjei-Boateng, D. 2016. Coastal Erosion in Ghana: Causes, Policies, and Management. Coastal Management, 44(2): 116–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2016.1135273

Kabir, G., & Hasin, M. A. A. 2013. Multi-criteria inventory classification through integration of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and artificial neural network. International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 14(1): 74–103. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJISE.2013.052922

Koks, E. E., Rozenberg, J., Zorn, C., Tariverdi, M., Vousdoukas, M., Fraser, S. A., Hall, J. W., & Hallegatte, S. 2019. A global multi-hazard risk analysis of road and railway infrastructure assets. Nature Communications, 10(1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10442-3

Koroglu, A., Ranasinghe, R., Jiménez, J. A., & Dastgheib, A. 2019. Comparison of Coastal Vulnerability Index applications for Barcelona Province. Ocean and Coastal Management, 178(November 2018): 104799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.05.001

Lecun, Y., Bengio, Y., & Hinton, G. 2015. Deep learning. Nature, 521(7553): 436–444. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14539

Mentaschi, L., Vousdoukas, M. I., Pekel, J. F., Voukouvalas, E., & Feyen, L. 2018. Global long-term observations of coastal erosion and accretion. Scientific Reports, 8(1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30904-w

Morais, D. C., & De Almeida, A. T. 2012. Group decision making on water resources based on analysis of individual rankings. Omega, 40(1): 42–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2011.03.005

Muslim, A. M., Ismail, K. I., Khalil, I., Razman, N., & Zain, K. 2011. Detection of shoreline changes at Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia from multi-temporal satellite sensor imagery. 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment - The GEOSS Era: Towards Operational Environmental Monitoring, April.

Ndour, A., Laïbi, R. A., Sadio, M., Degbe, C. G. E., Diaw, A. T., Oyédé, L. M., Anthony, E. J., Dussouillez, P., Sambou, H., & Dièye, E. hadji B. 2018. Management strategies for coastal erosion problems in west Africa: Analysis, issues, and constraints drawn from the examples of Senegal and Benin. Ocean and Coastal Management, 156: 92–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.09.001

Nobre, G. C., & Tavares, E. 2017. Scientific literature analysis on big data and internet of things applications on circular economy: a bibliometric study. Scientometrics, 111(1): 463–492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2281-6

Özcan, E., Danışan, T., Yumuşak, R., & Eren, T. 2020. An artificial neural network model supported with multi criteria decision making approaches for maintenance planning in hydroelectric power plants [Planowanie utrzymania ruchu w elektrowniach wodnych w oparciu o model sztucznej sieci neuronowej wsparty wi. Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc, 22(3): 400–418.

https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85091887440&doi=10.17531%2Fein.2020.3.3&partnerID=40&md5=ebbc0edab173f165560f32b1469f8c74

Özyurt, G., & Ergin, A. 2010. Improving coastal vulnerability assessments to sea-level rise: A new indicator-based methodology for decision makers. Journal of Coastal Research, 26(2): 265–273. https://doi.org/10.2112/08-1055.1

Prasad, D. H., & Kumar, N. D. 2014. Coastal Erosion Studies—A Review. International Journal of Geosciences, 05(03): 341–345. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2014.53033

Prasetya, G. 2001. Chapter 4: Protection from coastal erosion. Coastal Protection in the Aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami: What Role for Forests and Trees? Proceedings of the Regional Technical Workshop, Khao Lak, Thailand, 28–31 August 2006, 103–132. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ag127e/AG127E00.htm

Rangel-Buitrago, N., Neal, W. J., & de Jonge, V. N. 2020. Risk assessment as tool for coastal erosion management. Ocean and Coastal Management, 186(January): 105099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105099

Rangel-Buitrago, N., Williams, A. T., & Anfuso, G. 2018. Hard protection structures as a principal coastal erosion management strategy along the Caribbean coast of Colombia. A chronicle of pitfalls. Ocean and Coastal Management, 156, 58–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.04.006

Rudiastuti, A. W., Rahadiati, A., Dewi, R. S., Soetrisno, D., & Maulana, E. 2020. Assessing coastal vulnerability index of tourism site: The case of Mataram Coast. E3S Web of Conferences, 153. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202015303002

Saadon, M. S. I., Ab Wahida, N. S., Othman, M. R., Nor, D. A. M., Mokhtar, F. S., Nordin, N., Kowang, T. O., & Nordin, L. 2020. An evaluation of the impact of coastal erosion to the environment and economic activities at mengabang telipot, Terengganu. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(8): 1132–1136. https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.08.238

Saaty, T. L. 2002. Decision making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Scientia Iranica, 9(3): 215–229. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijssci.2008.017590

Sheik Mujabar, P., & Chandrasekar, N. 2013. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability assessment for southern coastal Tamil Nadu of India by using remote sensing and GIS. Natural Hazards, 69(3): 1295–1314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9962-x

Temmerman, S., Meire, P., Bouma, T. J., Herman, P. M. J., Ysebaert, T., & De Vriend, H. J. 2013. Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change. Nature, 504(7478): 79–83. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12859

Vagropoulos, S. I., Kardakos, E. G., Simoglou, C. K., Bakirtzis, A. G., & Catalão, J. P. S. 2016. ANN-based scenario generation methodology for stochastic variables of electric power systems. Electric Power Systems Research, 134: 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2015.12.020

Williams, A. T., Rangel-Buitrago, N., Pranzini, E., & Anfuso, G. 2018. The management of coastal erosion. Ocean and Coastal Management, 156: 4–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.03.022

Yee Ling, S., Veerasamy, K., Hidayat Jamal, M., & Shahrizal Ab Razak, M. 2019. Preliminary Modelling Assessment of Hydrodynamic Simulation due to Terengganu Airport Runway Extension. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 357(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/357/1/012036

Zhang, K., Douglas, B. C., & Leatherman, S. P. 2000) Twentieth-century storm activity along the U.S. East Coast. Journal of Climate, 13(10): 1748–1761. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1748:TCSAAT>2.0.CO;2

Zulfakar, M. S. Z., Akhir, M. F., Ariffin, E. H., Awang, N. A., Yaacob, M. A. M., Chong, W. S., & Muslim, A. M. 2020. The effect of coastal protections on the shoreline evolution at Kuala Nerus, Terengganu (Malaysia). Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 15(3): 71–85.

Downloads

Published

2022-03-24

How to Cite

Wan Khairuddin, W. N. ., & Rambat, S. . (2022). COASTAL EROSION INDEX USING AHP AND ANN FOR COASTAL MANAGER. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 34(1), 45-56. https://doi.org/10.11113/mjce.v34.17992

Issue

Section

Articles