HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER ELECTROLYSIS CURRENT PRACTICE VS SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES
Keywords:Hydrogen production, Photovoltaic, Alkaline Electrolysis, MATLAB-SIMULINK, Solar
AbstractResearch and development on sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels have become a prime focus for the last couple of decades. Hydrogen, one of Earth's most abundant elements, holds great potential as a sustainable energy carrier. However, as Hydrogen is lighter than air, it does not exist in pure form in the atmosphere and is often found in compounds, such as water. The abundance of seawater in this regard makes Hydrogen an almost inexhaustible source of energy. Nevertheless, sustainable ways of extracting Hydrogen from water, dealing with its high corrosiveness and significantly lower evaporation point, still pose research challenges. Therefore, this paper aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of sustainable Hydrogen generation by focussing on the application of electrolysis to recover Hydrogen from water rather than using common reforming techniques. Different parameters affecting the efficiency and the overall performance of the electrolyser process have also been discussed and possible solutions to tackle the problems are presented. Later, a case study has been conducted to demonstrate the sustainable alternative for hydrogen production for an alkaline electrolyser using solar energy. MATLAB Simulink platform is used in this regard. This paper concludes that at an irradiation level of 1000W/m2, a PV array with 57 parallel strings with four modules connected in series per string is sufficient to provide enough power for the electrolyser to produce Hydrogen.
Dawood, F. Anda, M., and Shafiullah, G.M. 2020. Hydrogen production for energy: An overview. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 45(7)
Muradov, N.Z., and Veziroǧlu, T.N. 2005. From hydrocarbon to Hydrogen–carbon to Hydrogen economy, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 30(3): 225-237.
York, A.P., Xiao, T., and Green, M.L. 2003. Brief overview of the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas, Topics in Catalysis, 22(3-4): 345-358.
Ma, R., Xu, B., and Zhang, X. 2019. Catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of natural gas and renewable hydrocarbons/oxygenated hydrocarbons—A review." Catalysis Today, 338: 18-30.
Stojić, D.L., Marčeta, M.P., Sovilj, S.P., and Miljanić, Š.S. 2003. Hydrogen generation from water electrolysis—possibilities of energy saving, Journal of Power Sources, 118(1-2): 315-319.
Kovac, A., Marcius, D., and Budin, L. 2019. Solar hydrogen production via alkaline water electrolysis. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(20).
Matute, G., Yusta, J.M., and Correas, L.C. 2019. Techno- economic modelling of water electrolysers in the range of several MW to provide grid services while generating Hydrogen for different applications: A case study in Spain applied to mobility with FCEVs, International journal of Hydrogen energy, 44(33): 17431-17442.
Rashid, M.M., Al Mesfer, M.K., Naseem, H. and Danish, M. 2015. Hydrogen production by water electrolysis: a review of alkaline water electrolysis, PEM water electrolysis and high temperature water electrolysis, Int. J. Eng. Adv. Technol, 4(3): 2249-8958.
Khaselev, O., Bansal, A. and Turner, J.A. 2001. High- efficiency integrated multijunction photovoltaic/electrolysis systems for Hydrogen production, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 26(2): 127- 132.
Lupi, C., Dell'Era, A., and Pasquali, M. 2009. Nickel– cobalt electrodeposited alloys for Hydrogen evolution in alkaline media, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(5): 2101-2106.
Petrov, Y., Schosger, J.P., Stoynov, Z. and De Bruijn, F. 2011. Hydrogen evolution on nickel electrode in synthetic tap water–alkaline solution, International journal of Hydrogen energy, 36(20): 12715-12724.
Wang, M., Wang, Z., Gong, X., and Guo, Z. 2014. The intensification technologies to water electrolysis for Hydrogen production–A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29: 573-588.
Roberto, F.D.S., Gabriel, L., Janine, C.P., Emilse, M.A.M., and Michele, O.D.S. 2008. "Molybdenum electrodes for Hydrogen production by water electrolysis using ionic liquid electrolytes," Electrochemistry Communications, 10: 1673-1675.
Caboussat, A., Kiss, L., Rappaz, J., Vékony, K., Perron, A., . Renaudier, S., and Martin, O. 2011. Large gas bubbles under the anodes of aluminum electrolysis cells, In Light Metals, 581-586, Springer, Cham.
Mazloomi, S.K., and Sulaiman, N. 2012. Influencing factors of water electrolysis electrical efficiency, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6): 4257-4263.
Matsushima, H., Iida, T., and Fukunaka, Y. 2012. Observation of bubble layer formed on Hydrogen and oxygen gas-evolving electrode in a magnetic field," Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 16(2): 617-623.
Cox, K.E. 2018. Hydrogen from solar energy. Hydrogen: Its Technology and Implication, Production Technology- I (1): 145.
Chi, J., and Yu, H. 2018. Water electrolysis based on renewable energy for Hydrogen production, Chinese Journal of Catalysis, 39(3): 390-394.
Gibson, T.L, and Kelly, N.A. 2008. Optimisation of solar powered Hydrogen production using photovoltaic electrolysis devices, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(21): 5931-5940.
Gilliam, R.J., Graydon, J.W., Kirk, D.W., and Thorpe, S.J. 2007. A review of specific conductivities of potassium hydroxide solutions for various concentrations and temperatures, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 32(3): 359-364.
Sakr, I.M., Abdelsalam, A.M., and El-Askary, W.A. 2017. Effect of electrodes separator-type on hydrogen production using solar energy, Energy, 140: 625-632.
Phillips, R., Edwards, A., Rome, B., Jones, D.R., and Dunnill, C.W. 2017. Minimising the ohmic resistance of an alkaline electrolysis cell through effective cell design, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(38): 23986-23994.
Roy, A., Watson, S. and Infield, D. 2006. Comparison of electrical energy efficiency of atmospheric and high- pressure electrolysers, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 31(14): 1964-1979.
Zouhri, K., and Lee, S.Y. 2016. Evaluation and optimisation of the alkaline water electrolysis ohmic polarisation: Exergy study, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(18): 7253-7263.
Bhattacharyya, R., Misra, A., and Sandeep, K.C. 2017. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion for Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis: conceptual design and analysis, Energy Conversion and Management, 133: 1-13.
Lun, S.X., Du, C.J., Guo, T.T., Wang, S., Sang, J.S., and Li, J.P. 2013. A new explicit I–V model of a solar cell based on Taylor's series expansion, Solar Energy, 94: 221-232.
Kothari, R., Buddhi, D., and Sawhney, R.L. 2008. Comparison of environmental and economic aspects of various Hydrogen production methods, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(2): 553-563