• Wahyudiono Wahyudiono New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan
  • Shinya Maeda Department of Materials Process Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo–cho, Chikusa–ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
  • Siti Machmudah Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
  • Kei Sato Faculty of Wellness, Shigakkan University, Obu 474-8651, Japan
  • Hideki Kanda Department of Materials Process Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo–cho, Chikusa–ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
  • Motonobu Goto Super Critical Technology Centre Co. Ltd., Kuwana, Mie, 511-0838, Japan




Subcritical water, Extraction, Liquefaction, Apple fruit, Procyanidin


Subcritical water, which is an effective solvent for polar and nonpolar substances, has been used to extract numerous natural ingredients. In this study, subcritical water was used to extract bioactive substances from apple peel in a batch process in the temperature range of 100–175 °C for 5–60 min. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed that phenolic compounds were released from apple peel in the aforementioned temperature range. The ultraviolet–visible spectra of the liquid products at 280 nm revealed the high content of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The high-performance liquid chromatography results demonstrated that the yield of procyanidin B2 was approximately 2.28 mg/g of dried apple peel when extraction was performed at 150 °C for 15 min.


Zhang, J., Wen, C., Zhang, H., Duan, Y., and Ma, H. 2020. Recent advances in the extraction of bioactive compounds with subcritical water: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 95: 183-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.11.018

Essien, S.O., Young, B., and Baroutian, S. 2020. Recent advances in subcritical water and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 97: 156-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.01.014

Wahyudiono, Machmudah, S., and Goto, M. 2013.Utilization of sub and supercritical water reactions in resource recovery of biomass wastes. Engineering Journal. 17(1): 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4186/ej.2013.17.1.1

Kodama, S., Shoda, T., Machmudah, S., Wahyudiono, Kanda, H., and Goto, M. 2015. Enhancing pressurized water extraction of beta-glucan from barley grain by adding CO2 under hydrothermal conditions. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 97:45–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2015.08.012

Machmudah, S., Wahyudiono, Kanda, H., Sasaki, M., and Goto, M. 2015. Hot compressed water extraction of lignin by using a flow-through reactor. Engineering Journal. 19(4): 25–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4186/ej.2015.19.4.25

Machmudah, S., Lestari, S.D., Widiyastuti, Wahyudiono, Kanda, H., Winardi, S., and Goto, M. 2018. Subcritical water extraction enhancement by adding deep eutectic solvent for extracting xanthone from mangosteen pericarps. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 33(2): 615-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2017.06.012

Kodama, S., Shoda, T., Machmudah, S., Wahyudiono, Kanda, H., and Goto, M. 2016. Extraction of β–glucan by hydrothermal liquidization of barley grain in a semi-batch reactor. Separation Science and Technology. 51(2): 278-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2015.1086377

Matsunaga, Y., Wahyudiono, Machmudah, S., Sasaki, M, and Goto, M. 2014. Hot compressed water extraction of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum using a semibatch reactor. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 9(1): 125-133. https://doi.org/10.1002/apj.1752

Hyson, D.A. 2011. A comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health. Advances in Nutrition. 2(5): 408-420. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.000513

Galanakis, C.M. 2020. Valorization of Fruit Processing By-products, Academic Press., Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.

Casazza, A.A., Pettinato, M., and Perego, P. 2020. Polyphenols from apple skins: A study on microwave-assisted extraction optimization and exhausted solid characterization. Separation and Purification Technology. 240: 116640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.116640

Wandjou, J.G.N., Lancioni, L., Barbalace, M.C., Hrelia, S, Papa, F., Sagratini, G., Vittori, S., et al. 2020. Comprehensive characterization of phytochemicals and biological activities of the Italian ancient apple ‘Mela Rosa dei Monti Sibillini’. Food Research International. 137: 109422, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109422

Asale, Y., Dessalegn, E., Assefa, D., and Abdisa, M. 2021. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different apple cultivars grown in South Ethiopia: case of the wolayta zone. International Journal of Food Properties. 24(1): 354-363. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2021.1885440

Pushpendra, K., Shruti, S., Sharma, R.R., Surender, S., Supradip, S., Sharma, V.K., Verma, M.K., and Shashi, K. 2018. Nutritional Characterization of Apple as a Function of Genotype. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 55(7): 2729–2738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3195-x

Aleksandra, D.C., Tomasz, T., and Tadeusz, T. 2011. Antioxidant Activity of Apples-an Impact of Maturity Stage and Fruit Part. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 10(4): 443–454. http://www.food.actapol.net/issue4/volume/3_4_2011.pdf

Mathew, D.T., Cecil, S., John, N.M., and Henry, J.T. 2009. In Vitro Measures Used to Predict Anticancer Activity of Apple Cultivars and Their Comparison to Outcomes from a Rat Model of Experimentally Induced Breast Cancer. Nutrition and Cancer. 61(4): 510–517. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580902825563

Petkova, N., Bileva, T., Valcheva, E., Dobrevska, G., Grozeva, N., Todorova, M., and Popov, V. 2019. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in apple fruits cultivar Florina. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 25(3): 13-18.

Chedea, V.S. 2016. Procyanidins: characterisation, antioxidant properties and health benefits, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, United States.

Fan, J., Liu, H., Wang, J., Zeng, J., Tan, Y., Wang, Y., Yu, X., et al. 2021. Procyanidin B2 improves endothelial progenitor cell function and promotes wound healing in diabetic mice via activating Nrf2. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 25(2): 652-665. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16111

Zhang, Q.W., Lin, L.G., and Ye, W.C. 2018. Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: A comprehensive review. Chinese Medicine. 13(1): 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-018-0177-x

Hoda, M., Hemaiswarya, S., and Doble, M. 2019. Role of Phenolic Phytochemicals in Diabetes Management Phenolic Phytochemicals and Diabetes, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., Singapore.

Dhanani, T., Singh, R., and Kumar, S. 2017. Extraction optimization of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, procyanidin-B2, (–)-epicatechin, (–)-epigallocatechin gallate, and (–)-epicatechin gallate: Their simultaneous identification and quantification in Saraca asoca. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 25(3): 691-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.08.004

Ersan, S., Ustundag, O.G., Carle, R., and Schweiggert, R.M. 2018. Subcritical water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant constituents from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls. Food Chemistry. 253: 46-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.01.116

Lachos-Perez, D., Baseggio, A.M., Mayanga-Torres, P.C., Junior, M.R.M., Rostagno, M.A., Martinez, J., and Forster-Carneiro, T. 2018. Subcritical water extraction of flavanones from defatted orange peel. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 138: 7-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2018.03.015

Niazmand, R., Noghabi, M.S., and Niazmand, A. 2021. Optimization of subcritical water extraction of phenolic compounds from Ziziphus jujuba using response surface methodology: evaluation of thermal stability and antioxidant activity. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 8(1): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-020-00203-6

Stierlin, E., Azoulay, S., Massi, L., Fernandez, X., and Michel, T. 2018. Cosmetic potentials of Prunus domestica L. leaves. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 98(2): 726-736. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8520

Kim, D.S. and Lim, S.B. 2020. Kinetic study of subcritical water extraction of flavonoids from citrus unshiu peel. Separation and Purification Technology. 250: 117259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117259

Zakaria, S.M. and Kamal, S.M.M. 2016. Subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from plants and algae: applications in pharmaceutical and food ingredients. Food Engineering Reviews. 8(1): 23-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-015-9119-x

Nakajima, H. 2013. Mass Transfer Advances in Sustainable Energy and Environment Oriented Numerical Modeling, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.

Muthukumarappan, K. and Knoerzer, K. 2021. Innovative Food Processing Technologies: A Comprehensive Review, 1st Edition, Academic Press., Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.




How to Cite

Wahyudiono, W., Maeda, S., Machmudah, S. ., Sato, K. ., Kanda, H. ., & Goto, M. . (2022). EXTRACTION OF PROCYANIDIN B2 FROM APPLE PEEL USING SUBCRITICAL WATER . ASEAN Engineering Journal, 12(2), 135-141. https://doi.org/10.11113/aej.v12.17165