• Abdo Ali Al-Sharai Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Chin Fhong Soon Biosensor and Bioengineering Laboratory, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Center, IIE, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Chan Hwang See School of Engineering & the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, United Kingdom.
  • See Khee Yee Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  • Kian Sek Tee Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Mohammed Abdul Wahab Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.



Co-axial extruder, tri-axial extruder, milli-fluidics, laminar flow, micro-fluidic, computational fluid dynamic, COMSOL Multiphysics.


With the use of a milli-fluidics device, it is possible to manipulate small amounts of fluid in the millimeter range with pinpoint accuracy. The milli-fluidics are currently lacking in studies of the relationship between fluid viscosity, output velocity and output pressure. Thus, this study examines the effects of viscosity on fluid dynamics in the co-axial and tri-axial milli-fluidics. This geometry of the co-axial and tri-axial milli-fluidics consist of single outlet, two inlets and three inlets, respectively. The tri-axial milli-fluidics is 46 mm long and 11.31 mm wide, while, the coaxial milli-fluidic is 64.73 mm long and 9.2 mm wide. The co-axial milli-fluidics constituted of 775 domain elements and 147 boundary elements, while, the tri-axial milli-fluidics mesh constituted of 1518 domain elements and 178 boundary elements.  Laminar flow was observed for the flow of the materials through the channels. When the dynamic viscosity approaches 5 mPa.s, the simulation reveals that the flow rate is inversely proportional to the dynamic viscosity for co-axial milli-fluidics. It was difficult to combine fluids with different viscosities with small volume of water in a narrow boundary, thus the parallel flow of material was observed. When using the one outlet channel for the tri-axial milli-fluidics, the assemble pressure at the three inlets was decreased compared with co-axial milli-fluidic. Even when the dynamic velocity of the fluid at outlet 1 increased, its velocity remained consistent. An extruder using tri-axial milli-fluidics can be used if the interfacial tension for intake 1 is higher than for inlet 2 and the dynamic viscosity of fluid 1 is above 2 mPas, according to the volumetric fraction model. The tri-axial milli-fluidic was found to be suitable for producing cladding of material with the balanced pressure from the two side channels.


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