• Richmark Macuha Institute of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines




flood risk, flood damage, vulnerability curve, inundation depth, damage cost


Vulnerability analysis has always been an integral part of disaster risk assessment. This study aims to assess the physical vulnerability of public school buildings against flooding. It discusses the vulnerable elements or attributes, the extent of damages incurred during flood events, the damage response, and the future steps that must be taken to increase flood resiliency. The study used empirical data collection using semi-structured interviews to characterize the common types of public schools and to collate the damage responses. Quantity surveying was performed to measure the amount of damages related to different flood depths. Structural damages to public school buildings are not expected for flood heights ranging from ground level up to ten (10) m. However, damages are incurred by building finishes and fixtures. Floors, walls, and septic system are cosmetically damaged. Vulnerable components include wooden elements like doors, cabinets, blackboards and ceiling, and electrical fixtures such as wiring, lighting, outlets, switches, and fire alarm system. Comprehensive vulnerability description of public school buildings were represented as curves of flood depth vs. damage index. The damage ratio decreases as the number of floors increase. Maximum damage to one-story building is 23.6% while at 15.02% for four-story school building. This study is an attempt to promote further research of the subject matter in developing countries towards flood resiliency in the built environment.


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How to Cite

Macuha, R. (2023). EVALUATING THE PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF PUBLIC SCHOOL BUILDINGS AGAINST FLOODING IN METRO MANILA, PHILIPPINES. ASEAN Engineering Journal, 13(2), 101-106. https://doi.org/10.11113/aej.v13.18959