• Nur Shahidah Aftar Ali Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bharu, Johor, Malaysia
  • Khalida Muda Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bharu, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohamed Zuhaili Mohamed Najib Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bharu, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohamad Faiz Mohd Amin Faculty of Earth Science, University Malaysia Kelantan, 16100, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Shahrul Ismail Faculty of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21300, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Mohd Faidz Mohamad Shahimin Faculty of Chemical Engineering & Technology, University Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
  • Farrah Aini Dahalan Faculty of Civil Engineering & Technology, University Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Perlis, Malaysia




oil palm trunk, optimization, response surface methodology, starch, ultrasound-assisted extraction


Higher production of palm oil in Malaysia has resulted in a significant amount of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunk (OPT). OPT has been studied as an alternative starch source. To date, reports on the extraction of starch from OPT using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) are limited. The application of UAE is considered to be a simpler and effective way in starch extraction compared to conventional extraction methods. This study aims to investigate the potential of ultrasound-assisted extraction to extract starch from OPT, and optimization using response surface methodology. A three-factor central composite design (CCD) was designed to determine the effects of variables on response. The three variables involved in the study, namely: sonication temperature (45-65°C), sonication time (30-60 min) and sodium metabisulfite concentration (0.5-1.5% w/v). All of the data were analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The R2 value (95.6%) and model (p <0.0001), indicating the acceptability of the model and significance in the interaction between independent variables. At the optimum conditions of 52.84°C temperature, 30.66 min exposure time and 0.58% w/v sodium metabisulfite concentration, the starch yield achieved its optimum value by 34.21%. Therefore, this study proved the potential of UAE in extracting higher OPT starch.


Zainol, M. M., Ab Rasid, N. S., Asmadi, M., and Amin, N. A. S. 2021. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Synthesis from Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch using Ionic Liquid and Hydrogen Peroxide. ASEAN Engineering Journal, 11(4): 80-88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/aej.v11.17866

Tay, P. W., H’ng, P. S., Chin, K. L., Wong, L. J., and Luqman, A. C. 2013. Effects of steeping variables and substrate mesh size on starch yield extracted from oil palm trunk. Industrial Crops and Products, 44: 240-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.10.034

Hashim, R., Nadhari, W. N. A. W., Sulaiman, O., Kawamura, F., Hiziroglu, S., Sato, M., and Tanaka, R. 2011. Characterization of raw materials and manufactured binderless particleboard from oil palm biomass. Materials & Design, 32(1): 246-254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.05.059

Wang, S., and Copeland, L. 2013. Molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization and its effect on starch digestibility: a review. Food & function, 4(11): 1564-1580. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60258c

Durrani, C. M., and Donald, A. M. 1995. Physical characterisation of amylopectin gels. Polymer gels and networks, 3(1): 1-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0966-7822(94)00005-r

Omar, N. S., Bakar, E. S., Jalil, N. M., Tahir, P. M., and Yunus, W. M. Z. W. 2011. Distribution of oil palm starch for different levels and portions of oil palm trunk. Wood Research Journal, 2(2): 73-77.

Ramle, S. F. M., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., Arai, T., and Kosugi, A. 2012. Characterization of parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk as function of storage time. Lignocellulose 1(1):33-44.

Mohd. Noor, M. A., Dos Mohd, A. M., Islam, M. N., & Mehat, N. A. 1999. Physico‐chemical properties of oil palm trunk starch. Starch‐Stärke, 51(8‐9): 293-301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1521-379x(199909)51:8/9<293aid-star293>3.0.co;2-f

Karim, N. A., Hashim, R., Sulaiman, O., and Hiziroglu, S. 2015. Extraction of Oil Palm Starch: A Comparative Study. In: International Conference on Environment Research and Technology. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.8.1.283-301

González-Lemus, L. B., Calderón-Domínguez, G., Salgado-Cruz, M. D. L. P., Díaz-Ramírez, M., Ramírez-Miranda, M., Chanona-Pérez, J. J., & Farrera-Rebollo, R. R. (2018). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of starch from frozen jicama (P. erosus) roots: Effect on yield, structural characteristics and thermal properties. CYTA-Journal of Food, 16(1): 738-746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2018.1462852

Park, S. H., Bean, S. R., Wilson, J. D., and Schober, T. J. 2006. Rapid isolation of sorghum and other cereal starches using sonication. Cereal chemistry, 83(6): 611-616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/cc-83-0611

Pinyo, J., Luangpituksa, P., Suphantharika, M., Hansawasdi, C., and Wongsagonsup, R. 2017. Improvement of sago starch extraction process using various pretreatment techniques and their pretreatment combination. Starch‐Stärke, 69(9-10): 1700005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/star.201700005

Jamalabadi, M., Saremnezhad, S., Bahrami, A., and Jafari, S. M. 2019. The influence of bath and probe sonication on the physicochemical and microstructural properties of wheat starch. Food science & nutrition, 7(7): 2427-2435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1111

Li, M., Li, J., and Zhu, C. 2018. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on enzymolysis and physicochemical properties of corn starch. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 111: 848-856 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.156.

Manchun, S., Nunthanid, J., Limmatvapirat, S., and Sriamornsak, P. 2012. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on physical properties of tapioca starch. In Advanced materials research 506: 294-297. Trans Tech Publications Ltd. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.506.294

Tan, S. X., Andriyana, A., Lim, S., Ong, H. C., Pang, Y. L., and Ngoh, G. C. 2021. Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Starch Extraction from Sago Pith Waste (SPW) for the Fabrication of Sustainable Bioplastic Film. Polymers, 13(24): 4398. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244398

Andrade, I. H., Otoni, C. G., Amorim, T. S., Camilloto, G. P., and Cruz, R. S. 2020. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of starch nanoparticles from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg). Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 586: 124277. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.124277

Chandra, R. A., Hasanah, A. N., and Agustina, R. 2016. Optimization of starch from Indonesian local corn with concentration variation of sodium metabisuphite and drying time. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 7(2): 89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/ijcea.2016.v7.549

Liu, J., Yang, R., and Yang, F. 2015. Effect of the starch source on the performance of cationic starches having similar degree of substitution for papermaking using deinked pulp. BioResources, 10(1): 922-931. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.10.1.922-931

Usman, M., Ishfaq, M. T., Malik, S. R., Ishfaq, B., and Iqbal, M. 2014. Effects of Temperature, pH and Steeping Time on the Extraction of Starch from Pakistani Rice. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(6): 877-892.

Shandera, D. L., and Jackson, D. S. 1996. Effect of corn wet-milling conditions (sulfur dioxide, lactic acid, and steeping temperature) on starch functionality. Cereal chemistry (USA). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/cchem.2002.79.1.120

Chemat, F., Rombaut, N., Sicaire, A. G., Meullemiestre, A., Fabiano-Tixier, A. S., and Abert-Vian, M. 2017. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review. Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 34: 540-560.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.06.035

Leong, T.; Ashokkumar, M. and Kentish, S. The fundamentals of power ultrasound–A review. Med. Phys. 2011, 38, 3392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.89.043007

Sulaiman, N. S., Hashim, R., Amini, M. H. M., Sulaiman, O., and Hiziroglu, S. 2013. Evaluation of the properties of particleboard made using oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin. BioResources, 8(1): 283-301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.8.1.283-301

P.D. Haaland, Experimental design in biotechnology. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, United States, 1989. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.670110307

Bezerra, M. A., Santelli, R. E., Oliveira, E. P., Villar, L. S., and Escaleira, L. A. 2008. Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta, 76(5): 965-977. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.05.019

Mohamed Noor, M. H., Ngadi, N., Suhaidi, A. N., Mohammed Inuwa, I., and Anako Opotu, L. 2022. Response Surface Optimization of Ultrasound‐Assisted Extraction of Sago Starch from Sago Pith Waste. Starch‐Stärke, 74(1-2): 2100012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/star.202100012

Jing-ming, L. and Sen-lin, Z. 1990. Scanning electron microscope study on gelatinization of starch granules in excess water. Starch/Staerke, 42: 96−98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/star.19900420305

Esclapez, M. D., García-Pérez, J. V., Mulet, A., and Cárcel, J. A. 2011. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural products. Food Engineering Reviews, 3(2): 108-120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-011-9036-6

Panda, D., and Manickam, S. 2019. Cavitation technology—The future of greener extraction method: A review on the extraction of natural products and process intensification mechanism and perspectives. Applied Sciences, 9(4): 766. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040766

Md Yusof, A. H., Abd Gani, S. S., Zaidan, U. H., Halmi, M. I. E., & Zainudin, B. H. 2019. Optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction condition for flavonoid compounds from cocoa shells (Theobroma cacao) using response surface methodology. Molecules, 24(4): 711. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040711




How to Cite

Aftar Ali, N. S., Muda, K., Mohamed Najib, M. Z., Mohd Amin, M. F., Ismail, S., Mohamad Shahimin, M. F., & Dahalan, F. A. (2023). ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF STARCH FROM OIL PALM TRUNK: AN OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY . ASEAN Engineering Journal, 13(4), 19–27. https://doi.org/10.11113/aej.v13.19011