• Muhammad Roslan Rahim Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Annisa Palupi Trisasongko Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Mastura Ab Wahid Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Norazila Othman UTM Aerolab, Institute for Vehicle Systems and Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Alaa Salahuddin Araibi Department of Automated Manufacturing Engineering, Al-Khawarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Aljadria Street, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mazlan Said Research Management Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia



Syngas, Gasification Technology, Clean Energy, Environmentally Friendly, Negative Carbon Value


Gasification technology has the potential to revolutionise the energy industry by providing a clean and efficient way to produce energy from a variety of raw materials. This technology have the ability to produce synthesis gas from raw materials based on negative or low carbon values such as high sulphur fuel oil, petroleum coke, coal, domestic wastes, industrial and biomass wastes. The gas produced from the process is used to replace natural gas, to generate electricity, or as a basic raw material to produce chemicals and liquid fuels. Gasification is a process that uses heat, pressure, and steam to convert substances directly into gases, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Gasification technology has differences in various aspects but there are four engineering factors that are the core of the gasification system such as atmospheric gasification reactor (level of oxygen or air content), internal and external heating, reactor design and operating temperature. The raw material used, prepared and introduced in dry form and small particles to the reactor chamber are called gasification. Raw materials experience heat, pressure and an environment rich or low in oxygen content in the gasification. There are three main products from the gasification process which are hydrocarbon gas (also called syngas), hydrocarbon liquid (oil) and coal (carbon black and ash). Syngas can be used as a fuel to produce electricity or steam or as a based material for many types of chemicals. When mixed with air, syngas can be used in petrol or diesel engines as a vehicle fuel with minor modifications to the engine. Gasification technology has several advantages over traditional fossil fuel-based energy production methods. It is able to produce energy from a wide range of raw materials, including waste, which reduces the need for landfills and incineration. Additionally, gasification can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by producing energy from low or negative carbon value raw materials.

Author Biography

  • Norazila Othman, UTM Aerolab, Institute for Vehicle Systems and Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Department of Aeronautics, Automotive and Ocean Engineering


Souza-Santos, M.L.D., 2004. Solid Fuels Combustion and Gasification: Modelling, Simulation, and Equipment Operation. 462, CRC Press, New York.

Sikarwar, V.S., Zhao, M., Fennel, P. S., Shah, N., Anthony, E. J., 2017. Progress in biofuel production from gasification. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 61: 189-248.

Couto, N., Rouboa, A., Silva, V., Monteiro, E., Bouziane, K., 2013. Influence of the Biomass Gasification Processes on the Final Composition of Syngas, Energy Procedia, 36: 596-606.

Kawaguchi K, Miyakoshi K, Momonoi K, 2002. Studies on the pyrolysis behavior of gasification and melting systems for municipal solid waste, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 4(2): 102-110.

Engvall, K., Liliedahl, T., and Dahlquist, E, 2013. Biomass and black liquor gasification, in Erik Dahlquist (Ed.), Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy: Combustion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Torrefaction and Fermentation, CRC Press, UK.

Olofsson, I., Nordin, A., and Söderlind, U, 2005. Initial review and evaluation of process technologies and systems suitable for cost-efficient medium-scale gasification for biomass to liquid fuels. Umeå Universitet.

Neubauer, Y. and Liu, H., 2013. Biomass gasification, in Lasse Rosendahl (Ed.), Biomass Combustion Science, Technology And Engineering, 106 129 Woodhead Publishing.

Bridgwater, A. V., 1995. The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation. Fuel, 74(5): 631-653.

Ahrenfeldt, J., 2012. Handbook biomass gasification, in H. A. M. Knoef (Ed.), Enschede: BTG biomass technology group.

Yılmaz S. and Selim, H., 2013. A review on the methods for biomass to energy conversion systems design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25: 420-430.

Lee, J-W., Yun, Y., Chung, S-W., Kang, S-H., Ryu, J-H., Kim, G-T., Kim, Y-J., 2014. Application of multiple swirl burners in pilot-scale entrained bed gasifier for short residence time, Fuel, 117:1052-1060.

Mandl, C., Obernberger, I., Scharler, I. R., 2011. Characterisation of fuel bound nitrogen in the gasification process and the staged combustion of producer gas from the updraft gasification of softwood pellets, Biomass and Bioenergy 35 (11): 4595 4604.

Asadullah, M., 2014. Barriers of commercial power generation using biomass gasification gas: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29: 201 - 215.

Martínez, J. D., Mahkamov, K., Andrade, R. V., Silva Lora, E. E., 2012. Syngas production in downdraft biomass gasifiers and its application using internal combustion engines, Renewable Energy, 38(1): 1-9.

Prasad, L., Subbarao, P. M. V. and Subrahmanyam, J. P., 2014. Pyrolysis and gasification characteristics of Pongamia residue (de-oiled cake) using thermogravimetry and downdraft gasifier, Applied Thermal Engineering. 63(1): 379 386.

Boateng, A. A. and Mtui, P. L., 2012. CFD modeling of space-time evolution of fast pyrolysis products in a bench-scale fluidised-bed reactor, Applied Thermal Engineering, 33- 34: 190-198.

Olgun, H., Ozdogan, S. and Yinesor, G., 2011. Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(1): 572-580.

Qin, YuHong, HaiFeng Huang, ZhiBin Wu, Jie Feng, Wenying Li, and KeChang Xie. 2007 "Characterization of tar from sawdust gasified in the pressurized fluidized bed." Biomass and Bioenergy 31(4): 243-249.

Jess, Andreas. 1996 "Mechanisms and kinetics of thermal reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons from pyrolysis of solid fuels." Fuel. 75(12): 1441-1448.

Lateh, H., Taweekun, J., Maliwan, K., Alauddin, Z. A. Z., & Rattanawilai, S. 2021. The Removal of Biomass Tar Derived Producer Gas by Means of Thermal and Catalytic Cracking Methods. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 88(2), 147-156.

Othman, N., Rahim, M. R., & Jaafar, M. N. M. 2021. Novel Swirl Fixed Bed Gasifier for Production of Synthesis Gas Using Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB). Science Proceedings Series, 4(1), 15-19.

W. Baaske, K. Jörg and J. Schmoll, 2004. Biomassevergasungsanlage Wiener Neustadt“, Leipzig: Gutenberg-Verlag,

Turare, C. 1997. Biomass gasification technology and utilization. ARTES Institute Glucksburg, Germany.

Rahman, M. M., Henriksen, U. B., Ahrenfeldt, J., & Arnavat, M. P. (2020). Design, construction and operation of a low-tar biomass (LTB) gasifier for power applications. Energy, 204: 117944

Kramreiter, R., Url, M., Kotik, J., & Hofbauer, H. 2008. Experimental investigation of a 125 kW twin-fire fixed bed gasification pilot plant and comparison to the results of a 2 MW combined heat and power plant (CHP). Fuel Processing Technology, 89(1): 90-102.

Bell, D. A., Towler, B. F., Fan, M., 2011. Gasifiers, in David A Bell, Brian F Towler and Maohong Fan (eds), Coal Gasification and Its Application, 73-100.

Ruiz, J. A., Juárez, M. C., Morales, M. P., Muñoz, P., Mendívil, M. A., 2013. Biomass gasification for electricity generation: Review of current technology barriers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 18: 174-183.

Yaghoubi, E., Xiong, Q., Doranehgard, M. H., Yeganeh, M. M., Shahriari, G., Bidabadi, M., 2018. The effect of different operational parameters on hydrogen rich syngas production from biomass gasification in a dual fluidised bed gasifier. Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification. 126:210 221.

Nam, H., Rodriguez-Alejandro, D. A., Adhikari, S., Brodbeck, C., Taylor, S., Johnson, J., 2018. Experimental investigation of hardwood air gasification in a pilot scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor and CFD simulation of jet/grid and pressure conditions. Energy Conversion and Management. 168: 599 610.

Siedlecki, M. and de Jong, W., 2011. Biomass gasification as the first hot step in clean syngas production process. Gas quality optimisation and primary tar reduction measures in a 100 kW thermal input steam. Oxygen blown CFB gasifier, Biomass and Bioenergy, 35: S 40-62.

Udomsirichakorn, J., Basu, P., Salam, P. A., Acharya, B., 2013. Effect of CaO on tar reforming to hydrogen-enriched gas with in-process CO2 capture in a bubbling fluidised bed biomass steam gasifier, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38(34):14495 504.

Arromdee, P. and Kuprianov, V. I., 2012. A comparative study on combustion of sunflower shells in bubbling and swirling fluidised-bed combustors with a coneshaped bed, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 62: 26-38.

Matsuoka, K., Hosokai, S., Kuramoto, K., Suzuki, Y., 2013. Enhancement of coal char gasification using a pyrolyser-gasifier isolated circulating fluidised bed gasification system, Fuel Processing Technology, 109: 43 - 48.

Bahng, M. K., Mukarakate, C., Robichaud, D. J. and Nimlos, M. R., 2009. Current technologies for analysis of biomass thermochemical processing: a review, Analytica Chimica Acta, 651(2): 117-138.

Yi, C-K. and Son, J-E., 2010. Comparison of two different hot-gas desulfurisation powder processes: transport reactor and bubbling fluidised bed, Advanced Powder Technology, 21(2): 119-124.

Kraussler, M., Binder, M., Schindler, P., Hofbauer, H., 2018. Hydrogen production within a polygeneration concept based on dual fluidised bed biomass steam gasification, Biomass and Bioenergy, 111: 320-329.

Xiong, Q., Yeganeh, M. M., Yaghoubi, E., Asadi, A., Doranehgard, M. H., Hong, K., 2018. Parametric investigation on biomass gasification in a fluidised bed gasifier and conceptual design of gasifier, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 127: 271-91.

Meng, X., de Jong, W., Fu, N., Verkooijen, A. H. M., 2011. Biomass gasification in a 100 kWth steam oxygen blown circulating fluidised bed gasifier: Effects of operational conditions on product gas distribution and tar formation, Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(7): 2910-2924.

Kong, X., Zhong, W., Du, W., Qian, F., 2014. Compartment modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier: a study on the influence of operating conditions, Energy Conversion and Management, 82:202-211.

Tremel, A., Becherer, D., Fendt, S., Gaderer, M., Spliethoff, H., 2013. Performance of entrained flow and fluidised bed biomass gasifiers on different scales. Energy Conversion and Management, 69:95-106.

Gazzani, M., Manzolini, G., Macchi, E., Ghoniem, A. F., 2013. Reduced order modeling of the Shell-Prenflo entrained flow gasifier, Fuel, 104:822-837.

Plis, P. and Wilk, R. K., 2011. Theoretical and experimental investigation of biomass gasification process in a fixed bed gasifier, Energy, 36(6):3838-3845.

Ding, L., Yoshikawa, K., Fukuhara, M., Kowata, Y., Nakamura, S., Xin, D., Muhan, L., 2018. Development of an ultra-small biomass gasification and power generation system: Part 2. Gasification characteristics of carbonised pellets/briquettes in a pilot-scale updraft fixed bed gasifier, Fuel, 220: 210-219.

Basu, P., 2010. Biomass gasification and pyrolysis: practical design and theory, Academic press.

EPA, C. 2007. Opportunities for and benefits of combined heat and power at wastewater treatment facilities. EPA-430-R-07-003, 6.

Adouane, B. 2006. Low NOx emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen in gas turbine combustors. Optima.

Samiran, N.A., M.N.M. Jaafar, J.-H. Ng, S.S. Lam, and C.T. Chong, 2016. Progress in biomass gasification technique–With focus on Malaysian palm biomass for syngas production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 62: 1047-1062.

Guan, H., Fan, X., Zhao, B., Yang, L., & Sun, R. 2018. Application and discussion of dual fluidized bed reactor in biomass energy utilization. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 108(5): 052019. IOP Publishing.

He, M., Hu, Z., Xiao, B., Li, J., Guo, X., Luo, S., Yang, F., Feng, Y., Yang, G., Liu, S., 2009. Hydrogen-rich gas from catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW): Influence of catalyst and temperature on yield and product composition, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(1): 195-203.

Thamavithya, M. and Dutta, A., 2008. An investigation of MSW gasification in a spout-fluid bed reactor, Fuel Processing Technology, 89(10): 949-957.

Niu, M., Huang, Y., Jin, B., Wang, X., 2014. Oxygen gasification of municipal solid waste in a fixed-bed gasifier, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 22(9): 1021 1026.

Watson, J., Zhang, Y., Si, B., Chen, W. T., de Souza, R., 2018. Gasification of biowaste: A critical review and outlooks, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 83: 1-17.

Lucas, C., Szewczyk, D., Blasiak, W., Mochida, S., 2004. High-temperature air and steam gasification of densified biofuels, Biomass and Bioenergy, 27(6):563-575.

Navarro, R. M., Peña, M. A, Fierro, J. L. G., 2007. Hydrogen production reactions from carbon feedstocks: fossil fuels and biomass, Chemical Reviews, 107:3952-3991.

Hamelinck, C. N. and Faaij. A. P. C., 2002. Future prospects for production of methanol and hydrogen from biomass, Journal of Power Sources, 111(1):1-22.

Xiao, R., Jin, B., Zhou, H., Zhong, Z., Zhang, M., 2007. Air gasification of polypropylene plastic waste in fluidised bed gasifier, Energy Conversion and Management, 48(3): 778-786.

Hamad, M. A., Radwan, A. M., Heggo, D. A., Moustafa, T., 2016. Hydrogen rich gas production from catalytic gasification of biomass, Renewable Energy. 85: 1290 1300.

Gao, N., Li, A., Quan, C., Qu, Y., Mao, L., 2012. Characteristics of hydrogen-rich gas production of biomass gasification with porous ceramic reforming, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37(12):9610-9618.

Zhao, Y., Sun, S., Zhou, H., Sun, R., Tian, H., Luan, J., Qian, J., 2010. Experimental study on sawdust air gasification in an entrained-flow reactor, Fuel Processing Technology, 91(8): 910-914.

Mansaray, K. G., Ghaly, A. E., Al-Taweel, A. M., Hamdullahpur, F., Ugursal, V. I., 1999. Air gasification of rice husk in a dual distributor type fluidised bed gasifier, Biomass and Bioenergy, 17(4): 315-332.

Manyà, J. J., Sànchez, J. L., Ábrego, J., Gonzalo, A., Arauzo, J., 2006. Influence of gas residence time and air ratio on the air gasification of dried sewage sludge in a bubbling fluidised bed, Fuel, 85(14-15): 2027-2033.

García, L., Salvador, M. L., Arauzo, J., Bilbao, R., 1999. Catalytic steam gasification of pine sawdust. Effect of catalyst weight/biomass flow rate and steam/biomass ratios on gas production and composition, Energy & Fuels,13(4): 851-859.

Rapagnà, S., Jand, N., Kiennemann, A., Foscolo, P. U., 2000. Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidised-bed of olivine particles, Biomass and Bioenergy, 19(3): 187-197.

Li, X., Li, C. Z., 2006. Volatilisation and catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis and gasification of Victorian brown coal. Part VIII. Catalysis and changes in char structure during gasification in steam, Fuel, 85(10-11): 1518-1525.

Gadsby, J., Hinshelwood, C. N., Sykes, K. W., 1946. The kinetics of the reactions of the steam carbon system, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 187(1009): 129-151.

Kihedu, J. H., Yoshiie, R., Naruse, I., 2016. Performance indicators for air and air-steam autothermal updraft gasification of biomass in packed bed reactor, Fuel Processing Technology, 141(Part 1): 93-98.

Roche, E., de Andrés, J. M., Narros, A., Rodríguez, M. E., 2014. Air and air-steam gasification of sewage sludge. The influence of dolomite and throughput in tar production and composition, Fuel, 115:54-61.

Dai, B. Q., Wu, X. J., Lou, T., Zhang, Z. X., 2013. Experimental Study on Rich Oxygen Gasification and Ash Character in Entrainedflow Coal Gasifier, Advanced Materials Research, 860-863: 1405-1411.

Özyuğuran, A. and Yaman, S., 2017. Prediction of calorific value of biomass from proximate analysis, Energy Procedia. 107: 130-136.

Nunes, L. J. R., De Oliveira Matias, J. C., and Da Silva Catalão, J. P., 2018. Chapter 1 - Introduction, in L. J. R. Nunes, J. C. De Oliveira Matias, and J. P. Da Silva Catalão (Eds.), Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications, 1-43, Academic Press.

García, R., Pizarro, C., Lavín, A. G., Bueno, J. L., 2013. Biomass proximate analysis using thermogravimetry, Bioresource Technology, 139: 1-4.

McKendry, P., 2002. Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass, Bioresource Technology, 83(1): 37-46.

Cavalaglio, G., Cotana, F., Nicolini, A., Coccia, V., Petrozzi, A., Formica, A., Bertini, A. J. S., 2020. Characterisation of Various Biomass Feedstock Suitable for Small-Scale Energy Plants as Preliminary Activity of Biocheaper Project, Sustainability, 12(16): 6678.

Muthu Dinesh Kumar, R. and Anand, R, 2019. Chapter 5 - Production of biofuel from biomass downdraft gasification and its applications, in A. K. Azad & M. Rasul (Eds.), Advanced Biofuels, 129-151, Woodhead Publishing.

Di Gregorio, F., Santoro, D., Arena, U., 2014. The effect of ash composition on gasification of poultry wastes in a fluidised bed reactor, Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy, 32(4): 323-330.

Basu, P., 2010. Chapter 2 - Biomass Characteristics, in P. Basu (Ed.), Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis, 27-63, Academic Press.

Gao, N., Śliz, M., Quan, C., Bieniek, A., Magdziarz, A., 2021. Biomass CO2 gasification with CaO looping for syngas production in a fixed-bed reactor, Renewable Energy, 167: 652-661.

Liu, H., 2011. 5 - Biomass fuels for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: resources, conversion and applications, in R. Beith (Ed.), Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, 88-122, Woodhead Publishing.

Basu, P., 2010. Biomass gasification and pyrolysis: practical design and theory, Academic Press.

Higman, C. and van der Burgt, M., 2008. Gasification: 2nd Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing.

Huang, Y. F., Chiueh, P. T., Kuan, W. H., & Lo, S. L. 2015. Effects of lignocellulosic composition and microwave power level on the gaseous product of microwave pyrolysis. Energy, 89: 974-981.

Monsef-Mirzai, P., Ravindran, M., McWhinnie, W. R., & Burchill, P. 1995. Rapid microwave pyrolysis of coal: Methodology and examination of the residual and volatile phases. Fuel, 74(1): 20-27.

Samiran, N. A., Ng, J. H., Jaafar, M. N. M., Valera-Medina, A., Chong, C. T., 2016. H2-rich syngas strategy to reduce NOx and CO emissions and improve stability limits under premixed swirl combustion mode, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(42): 19243-19255.

Basu, P. (2018). Biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction: practical design and theory. Academic press.

Cleveland, C. J., & Ayres, R. U. (2004). Encyclopedia of Energy: Ec-Ge (Vol. 2). Elsevier Academic Press.

Ciliberti, C., Biundo, A., Albergo, R., Agrimi, G., Braccio, G., de Bari, I., & Pisano, I. 2020. Syngas derived from lignocellulosic biomass gasification as an alternative resource for innovative bioprocesses. Processes, 8(12): 1567.

Boerrigter, H., Calis, H. P., Slort, D. J., & Bodenstaff, H. 2004. Gas cleaning for integrated biomass gasification (BG) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) systems; experimental demonstration of two BG-FT systems. Acknowledgement/Preface, 51.

Hannula, I., & Kurkela, E. 2012. A parametric modelling study for pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification of wood with catalytic reforming. Biomass and bioenergy, 38: 58-67.

Anis, S., & Zainal, Z. A. 2011. Tar reduction in biomass producer gas via mechanical, catalytic and thermal methods: A review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15(5): 2355-2377.

Bergman, P. C., Van Paasen, S. V., & Boerrigter, H. 2002. The novel'OLGA'technology for complete tar removal from biomass producer gas.

Vreugdenhil, B. J., Zwart, R., & Neeft, J. P. A. 2009. Tar formation in pyrolysis and gasification.

Milne, T. A., Evans, R. J., & Abatzaglou, N. 1998. Biomass gasifier''Tars'': their nature, formation, and conversion.

Li, C., & Suzuki, K. 2009. Tar property, analysis, reforming mechanism and model for biomass gasification—An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(3): 594-604.

Al Arni, Saleh. 2023. Advanced Technology for Cleanup of Syngas Produced from Pyrolysis/Gasification Processes. In Advanced Technologies for Solid, Liquid, and Gas Waste Treatment, 289-304. CRC Press,

Chiranjeevaraoseela, V., & VykuntaRao, M. 2015. Techniques of tar removal from producer gas-A review. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol, 4(2): 258-266.

Paethanom, A., Nakahara, S., Kobayashi, M., Prawisudha, P., & Yoshikawa, K. 2012. Performance of tar removal by absorption and adsorption for biomass gasification. Fuel processing technology, 104: 144-154.

Laurence, L. C., & Ashenafi, D. (2012). Syngas treatment unit for small scale gasification-application to IC engine gas quality requirement. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 5(1): 95-103

Abdoulmoumine, N., Adhikari, S., Kulkarni, A., & Chattanathan, S. 2015. A review on biomass gasification syngas cleanup. Applied Energy, 155: 294-307.

Sahoo, B. B., Sahoo, N., & Saha, U. K. 2012. Effect of H2: CO ratio in syngas on the performance of a dual fuel diesel engine operation. Applied Thermal Engineering, 49: 139-146.

Bika, A. S., Franklin, L., & Kittelson, D. 2011. Cycle efficiency and gaseous emissions from a diesel engine assisted with varying proportions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas) (No. 2011-01-1194). SAE Technical Paper.

Rezaiyan, J. and Cheremisinoff, N. P., 2005. Gasification technologies: a primer for engineers and scientists, CRC press.

Raghunathan, K. and Gullett, B. K., 1996. Role of sulfur in reducing PCDD and PCDF formation, Environmental Science & Technology, 30(6): 1827-1834.

Williams, A., Wetherold, B., and Maxwell, D, 1996. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant, Radian Corp.

Baker, D. C., 1994. Projected emissions of hazardous air pollutants from a Shell coal gasification process-combined-cycle power plant, Fuel, 73(7): 1082-1086.

Vick, S., 1996. Slagging Gasification Injection Technology for Industrial Waste Elimination, Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, USA.

Salinas, L., Bork, P. and Timm, E., 1999. Gasification of Chlorinated Feeds, Gasification Technologies Council’s Conference, San Francisco, USA.

Richards, M. K. and Rosenthal, S., 1994. US EPA’s evaluation of a Texaco gasification technology, Superfund XV conference proceedings. 1, USA.

Panepinto, D., Tedesco, V., Brizio, E., Genon, G., 2015. Environmental performances and energy efficiency for MSW gasification treatment, Waste and Biomass Valorization. 6(1): 123-135.

Mayers, M. A., 1945. Chemistry of Coal Utilization, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.

Probstein, R. F., and Hicks, R. E., 2006. Synthetic fuels, Courier Corporation.

Klass, D. L., 1998. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals, Academic Press.

U.S. Department of Energy,

Fair, D., n.d. The Future of Gasification, Synthesis Energy Systems Inc.,, [Accessed:19 January 2023].

Uddin, M. N., Techato, K., Taweekun, J., Rahman, M. M., Rasul, M. G., Mahlia, T. M. I., & Ashrafur, S. M. 2018. An overview of recent developments in biomass pyrolysis technologies. Energies, 11(11): 3115.

Khaing, N. N., Myint, T. Y., & Kyi, C. C. 2019. Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using integrated fixed film activated sludge process and anoxic process. ASEAN Engineering Journal, 9(2): 17-27. https://doi:10.11113/aej.v9.15510

Manegdeg, F., De Silos, P. Y., & Medrano, J. 2021. Case study on the usage of residential residual waste for energy generation via biodigester-pyrolyzer and steam Rankine cycle. ASEAN Engineering Journal, 11(1): 13-23. https://doi:10.11113/aej.v11.166







How to Cite

GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS FUTURE: A REVIEW. (2024). ASEAN Engineering Journal, 14(1), 45-61.