• Rochie Amolato Institute of Civil Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila 1011, Philippines
  • Joanna Resurreccion Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila 1011, Philippines
  • Maxell Lumbera Institute of Civil Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila 1011, Philippines



Water Sustainability, Rainwater harvesting, Rainwater Reliability, Multi-criteria decision analysis, Yield after spillage algorithm


Water scarcity has emerged as a critical global challenge, necessitating the exploration of alternative water sources. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) presents a promising solution, given its abundance and ease of collection. Despite the Philippines' ample rainfall, RWH remains underutilized, capturing merely 6% of the annual precipitation. To bolster RWH adoption, this study aims to investigate residents' preferences for alternative water systems, with a specific focus on cost-effectiveness and reliability. By addressing these factors, we aim to identify key strategies for promoting and implementing RWH to mitigate water scarcity and foster sustainable water management practices in the Philippines. Preferences of rural residents (n = 185) in Teresa, Rizal on RWH alternative was then evaluated using a multi-criteria decision analysis. The main criteria assessed were reliability, cost, adoption factors, and benefits. The analysis involved assessing and converting the scores into Yield After Spillage (YAS) to establish rainfall reliability. The study employed Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) to compare and evaluate various alternatives based on different factors, which were subsequently ranked under different scenarios. The study found that Alternative P10, a 1,000L plastic tank with a 20L first flush, exhibited the highest utility score among the assessed alternatives, with a score of 0.617. Notably, Alternative F30, featuring a 3,000L ferrocement tank with a 200L first flush, closely followed with a utility score of 0.614. The study employed the Jonckheere-Terpstra test and Kendall's tau with a significance level of 0.05 to determine the significance of these criteria concerning increasing income. The criteria of price, maintenance, and durability were identified as statistically significant (p-values: 0.007, 0.031, and 0.005, respectively) as residents' income increased. Consequently, residents with higher incomes placed greater importance on Alternative F50, a 5,000L ferrocement tank, due to its alignment with these influential criteria. Moreover, given the potential impacts of changing rainfall patterns and growing water demands, implementing larger storage tanks, like Alternative F50, is advisable to enhance future water sustainability in Teresa, Rizal.


Mekonnen, M. and A. Hoekstra. 2016. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity. Science Advances. 2(2): e1500323–e1500323. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500323

Sabillo, J., and G. Ropero. 2019 [Online]. La Mesa dam level lowest in 12 years: data. ABS-CBN News. Available https://news.abs mesa dam level lowest-in-12-years-data. [Accessed: January 2021]

Shah, S., and H. Zerriffi. 2017. Urban water demand, climatic variation, and irrigation-water insecurity: Interactive stressors and lessons for water governance from the Angat River basin (Philippines). Water International, 42(5): 543-567. doi:10.1080/02508060.2017.1342073

Schewe, J., J. Heinke, D. Gerten, I. Haddeland, N. W. Arnell, D. B. Clark, and P. Kabat. 2013. Multimodel assessment of water scarcity under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(9): 3245–3250. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1222460110

Cruz, F., G. Narisma, M. Villafuerte II, K. Chua, & L. Olaguera. 2013. A climatological analysis of the southwest monsoon rainfall in the Philippines. Atmospheric research. 122: 609-616. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.010

Murshed, S., A. Islam, and M. Khan. 2011. Impact of climate change on rainfall intensity in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Water and Flood Management. 8-10.

Bekele, E., and H. Knapp. 2010. Watershed modeling to assessing impacts of potential climate change on water supply availability. Water Resources Management. 24(13): 3299-3320. doi: 10.1007/s11269-010-9607-y

Özdemir, S., M. Elliott, J. Brown, P. Nam, V. Thi Hien, and M. Sobsey. 2011. Rainwater harvesting practices and attitudes in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 1(3): 171–177. doi: 10.2166/washdev.2011.024

Islam, M., F. Chou, and M. Kabir. 2011. Feasibility and acceptability study of rainwater use to the acute water shortage areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Natural Hazards. 56(1): 93-111. doi: 10.1007/s11069-010-9551-4

Famiglietti, J. 2014. The global groundwater crisis. Nature Climate Change. 4(11): 945-948. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2425

Fewkes, A., and D. Butler. 2000. Simulating the Performance of Rainwater Collection and Reuse Systems Using Behavioral Models. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology (21): 99-106. doi: 10.1177/014362440002100204

Kiker, G., T. Bridges, A. Varghese, T. Seager, and I. Linkov. 2005. Application of Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Environmental Decision Making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 1(2): 95. doi: 10.1897/IEAM_2004a-015.1

Melville-Shreeve, P., S. Ward, and D. Butler. 2016. Rainwater Harvesting Typologies for UK Houses: A Multi Criteria Analysis of System Configurations. Water. 8(4): 129. doi: 10.3390/w8040129

Galarza-Molina, S., A. Torres, P. Moura, and J. Lara-Borrero. 2015. Cride: A case study in multi-criteria analysis for decision-making support in rainwater harvesting. International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making. 14(01): 43-67. doi: 10.1142/S0219622014500862

Semaan, M., S. Day, M. Garvin, N. Ramakrishnan, and A. Pearce. 2020. Optimal sizing of rainwater harvesting systems for domestic water usages: A systematic literature review. Resources, Conservation & Recycling. X: 100033. doi: 10.1016/j.rcrx.2020.100033

Nijkamp, P., and P. Rietveld. 1990. Multicriteria Evaluation in Physical Planning. Elsevier Science Publishers. New York, N.Y.

Josa, I., O. Pons, A. De la Fuente, and A. Aguado. 2020. Multi-criteria decision-making model to assess the sustainability of girders and trusses: Case study for roofs of sports halls. Journal of Cleaner Production. 249: 119312.

Gires, A., and B. de Gouvello. 2009. Consequences to water suppliers of collecting rainwater on housing estates. Water Science and Technology. 60(3): 543-553. doi: 10.2166/wst.2009.361

Xu, W., T. Fletcher, H. Duncan, D. Bergmann, J. Breman, and M. Burns. 2018. Improving the multi-objective performance of rainwater harvesting systems using real-time control technology. Water. 10(2): 147. doi: 10.3390/w10020147

Avis, R., and M. Avis. 2019. Essential Rainwater Harvesting A guide to Home-Scale System Design. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada.

Novak, C., E. Giesen, & K. Debusk. 2014. Designing Rainwater Harvesting Systems: Integrating Rainwater into Building Systems. John and Wiley and Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Kinkade-Levario, H. 2007. Design for Water: Rainwater Harvesting, Stormwater Catchment, and Alternate Water Use. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada.

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. 2018 [Online]. Observed Climate Trends and Projected Climate Change in the Philippines, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, Quezon City, Philippines. 36 [Accessed: February 2021]

Sturm, M., M. Zimmermann, K. Schütz, W. Urban, and H. Hartung. 2009. Rainwater harvesting as an alternative water resource in rural sites in central northern Namibia. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. 34(13-16): 776. doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2009.07.004

Palla, A., I. Gnecco, and P. La Barbera. 2017. The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in stormwater runoff mitigation at the urban block scale. Journal Of Environmental Management. 191: 297-305. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.025

Kearton, R., and B. Boyden. 2005 [Online]. Water Supply, Sewerage, And Sanitation Master Plan for Metro Manila: Volume 1. Final Report. Available: [Accessed: February 2021]

Asian Development Bank. 2020 [Online]. Asian Water Development Outlook: Advancing Water Security Across Asia and The Pacific. Available: water development-outlook-2020 [Accessed: February 2021]

World Bank. 2012 [Online]. Rural Water Design Manual, 1. Available: [Accessed: February 2021]

Zhang, D., R. Gersberg, C. Wilhelm, and M. Voigt. 2009. Decentralized water management: rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse in an urban area of Beijing, China. Urban Water Journal. 6(5): 375-385. doi: 10.1080/15730620902934827







How to Cite