Is Average Worrying? A Mixed Method Study of Malaysian Public University Administrative Staff’s Workplace Communication Apprehension

Authors

  • Mohd Zulfadli Mat Husin Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic and International), Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 16300 Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Nor Yazi Khamis Centre for Modern Languages, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/lspi.v10.20202

Keywords:

ESP, Language Apprehension, Workplace Language, PRCA, Higher Learning

Abstract

Even when employed, English oral communication skills proficiency continues to be an asset; mastering the skill is advantageous. The notion has driven comprehensive studies on communication, including apprehension, yet the focus on workplace contexts remains minimal. Therefore, this investigation aims to discern communication apprehension’s effect on staff’s communication skills, their administrative tasks, and the institution, to support the skill enhancement. Utilizing the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension instrument and a purposive sampling, the study’s explanatory sequential mixed method design sampled institution’s one hundred fifteen administrative staff. The staff communication apprehension levels were recorded as moderate, with the highest in delivering public speeches. Nevertheless, interview results proved differently to extend worrying trends among staff. The trend could jeopardize staff’s personality and productivity in the long run. The mediocre level also hinted at skill’s stagnant inclination or deterioration if it is not consistently used in conducting workplace tasks or events. The need for an impactful lifelong learning professional development plan to improve staff English oral communication skills is apparent by the University. The university's plan also need to include supporting sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for their employees.

References

Abdullah, A. T. H. (2014). Communication apprehension in using English Language among non-academic officers at a public university in Malaysia. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(12), 361-370.

Aeni, N., Jabu, B., Rahman, M. A., & Strid, J. E. (2017). English oral communication apprehension in students of Indonesian maritime. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(4), 158. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n4p158.

Ahmed, M. A., & Adam, A. H. (2018). Analyzing English Oral communication inabilities facing Sudanese oil & gas employees، ( A case study of Sudanese Petroleum Corporation Employees). Journal of Linguistic and Literay Studies, 19(2), 59-73. http://repository.sustech.edu/handle/123456789/21484.

Al-Mahrooqi, R., & Denman, C. J. (2016). Omani graduates’ English-language communication skills in the workforce: Employees’ perspectives. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 5(4), 172-182. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.4p.172.

Al-tahtamoni, H. M. S. (2019). Investigating Oral communication strategies used by Registrar’s Office employees in an International University Context : A case study (Issue July). Eastern Mediterranean University.

Amogne, D., & Yigzaw, A. (2013). Oral communication apprehension, competence and performance among maritime engineering trainees. Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 5(1), 5-11. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMCS12.045.

Bastida Jr., E. l, & Yapo, J. R. (2019). Factors contributing to oral communication apprehension among selected senior high school students in Santa Rosa City, Laguna, Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Contemporary Education and Comunication Technology, 5(2). https://apiar.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/2_APJCECT_v5i2_2019_pp.-10-20.pdf.

Batiha, J. M., Noor, N. M., & Mustaffa, R. (2016). Speaking Anxiety among English as a foreign language learner in Jordan: Quantitative research. International Journal of Education and Research, 4(10), 63-82. www.ijern.com.

Berwick, R. (1989). Needs assessment in language programming: from theory to practice. In R. K. Johnson (Ed.), The Second Language Curriculum (pp. 48–62). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139524520.006.

Bhar, S. K. (2016). Language use and choice in selected Malaysian agricultural organisations. Universiti Putra Malaysia. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/monografias/GEBIS - RJ/RBG/RBG 1995 v57_n1.pdf%0Ahttps://periodicos.ufpe.br/revistas/rbgfe/article/view/234295.

Borzi, M. G., & Mills, T. H. (2001). Communication apprehension in upper level accounting students: An assessment of skill development. Journal of Education for Business, 76(4), 193-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832320109601310

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.

Brink, K. E., & Costigan, R. D. (2015). Oral communication skills: Are the priorities of the workplace and AACSB-accredited business programs aligned? Academy of Management Learning and Education, 14(2), 205-221. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2013.0044.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles : an interactive approach to language pedagogy. Longman.

Byron, A. L. (2005). Communication Apprehension in the workplace and its effects on employee job performance. Texas Tech University.

Cameron, D. (2002). Globalization and the teaching of ‘communication skills. In Block, D., & Cameron, D. (Eds.) Globalization and Language Teaching (pp. 67-82). Routledge.

Charlesworth, D. (2006). Identifying communication apprehension levels in senior-level information systems majors: A pilot study. Issues in Information Systems, VII(1), 319-323. https://doi.org/10.48009/1_iis_2006_319-323.

Coopman, S., & Lull, J. (2011). Public speaking: The evolving art. Cengage Learning. https://books.google.com.my/books?id=SE9YQ8l5afcC.

Croucher, S. M., Kelly, S., Rahmani, D., Jackson, K., Galy-Badenas, F., Lando, A., Chibita, M., Nyiranasbimana, V., Turdubaeva, E., Eskiçorapçı, N., Condon, S. M., Stanalieva, G., & Orunbekov, B. (2019). A multi-national validity analysis of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24). Annals of the International Communication Association, 43(3), 193-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2019.1602783.

De Paola, M., Lombardo, R., Pupo, V., & Scoppa, V. (2021). Do women shy away from public speaking? A field experiment. Labour Economics, 70, 102001. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2021.102001.

Du, X. (2009). The affective filter in second language teaching. Asian Social Science, 5(8), 162-165. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v5n8p162.

Dudley-Evans, T., & Maggie-Jo., S. J. (1998). Developments in english for specific purpose : A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge University Press.

Dumanig, F. P. (2010). Language Choice in Interracial Marriages : The Case of Filipino-Malaysian Couples (Issue September).

Fareen, J. A. M. (2017). English for placement purposes: Developing a Needs based course for meeting the employment demands of IT industries. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 49-66. https://doi.org/10.32601/ejal.461033.

Faridizad, A., & Simin, S. (2015). Exploring the Relationship between learners gender differences and communication apprehension considering the class participation in Iranian EFL context. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 48, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilshs.48.91.

Fitriah, F., & Muna, H. (2019). Foreign language speaking anxiety: A case study at English departement students of IAIN Lhokseumawe and Al Muslim university. Jurnal Ilmiah DIDAKTIKA, 19(2), 141-158.

Frantz, J., Marlow, A., & Wathen, J. (2005). Communication apprehension and its relationship to gender and college year. Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato, 5(7), 1-13. http://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/jurhttp://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/jur/vol5/iss1/7.

Ghazali, N., Mohd Said, N. E., & Hua, T. K. (2020). Understanding second language anxiety: Feedback from ESL learners in TVET. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 2057-2063. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080543.

Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for specific purposes. In Cambridge Language Teaching Library (Vol. 103, Issue 11). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511733031.

Huwari, I., & Aziz, N. H. A. (2010). Oral communication apprehension in English among Jordanian Postgraduate Students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. Academic Research International, 1(2), 190-198.

Ireland, C. (2020). Apprehension felt towards delivering oral presentations: A case study of accountancy students. Accounting Education, 29(3), 305-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/09639284.2020.1737548.

Isa, I. Z., & Tamam, N. (2012). Communication apprehension among Technical and Commerce Learners in Polytechnic Port Dickson. Journal Online Jaringan Pengajian Seni Bina (JOJAPS), 3, 7-13.

Jalal, T. S. T. (2016). Workplace english: An analysis of communication needs. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, 1379-1388.

Jones, K. T., & Procopio, C. H. (2017). Mentoring at-risk middle school students to reduce communication apprehension. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 25(2), 185-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2017.1326692.

Jusoh, Z., Engku Atek, E. S., Syed Omar, S. N. M., & Abdullah, A. T. . (2018). Investigation into non-academic staff communication apprehension in using English language. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 8(9), 677-685. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.1.2018.89.677.685.

Ka-kan-dee, M., & Al-Shaibani, G. K. S. (2018). Tourism students’ oral presentation anxiety: A case study. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26(T), 231-256.

Kakepoto, I., Said, H., Habil, H., Umrani, A. I., & Memon, I. A. (2013). Workplace communication : oral communicative competence of engineers in engineering workplace of Pakistan. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 3(2), 131-139.

Karachedee, P. (2017). Needs for English Communication Skills of Thai Employees in a Multinational Company. Burapha University, Thailand. http://digital_collect.lib.buu.ac.th/dcms/files/55921456.pdf.

Kassim, H., & Ali, F. (2010). English communicative events and skills needed at the workplace: Feedback from the industry. English for Specific Purposes, 29(3), 168-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2009.10.002.

Khan, T. M., Ejaz, M. A., & Azmi, S. (2009). Evaluation of communication apprehension among first year and final year pharmacy undergraduates. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 3(6), 1885-1890.

Kimberley, L. Y. L., Yih, Y. J., & Sandra, S. P. L. (2020). Undergraduates’ speaking anxiety in English as Second Language (ESL) Classrooms. International Journal of Service Management and Sustainability, 4(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.24191/ijsms.v4i1.8180.

Krohne, H. W., Schmukle, S. C., Burns, L. R., Egloff, B., & Spielberger, C. D. (2001). The measurement of coping in achievement situations: An international comparison. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(7), 1225-1243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00105-7.

Loureiro, M., Loureiro, N., & Silva, R. (2020). Differences of gender in oral and written communication apprehension of university students. Education Sciences, 10(12), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10120379.

Lucas, S. (2012). The art of public speaking. 11th ed. McGraw- Hill.

Mak, B. S.-Y., & White, C. (1997). Communication Apprehension of Chinese ESL Students. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 81-95.

McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4(1), 78-96. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1977.tb00599.x.

McCroskey, J. C. (1984). Communication apprehension perspective. In Avoiding Communication: Shyness, Reticence, and Communication Apprehension (pp. 13–38). Sage. http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/publications/bookchapters/003_1984_C1.pdf.

McCroskey, J. C., & Beatty, M. J. (1986). Oral Communication Apprehension. In Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 259-268). Sage. http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/publications/bookchapters/007_1986_C21.pdf.

McCroskey, J. C., & McCroskey, L. L. (1988). Self-report as an approach to measuring communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 5(2), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824098809359810.

Miskam, N. N., & Saidalvi, A. (2018). Investigating English Language speaking anxiety among Malaysian undergraduate learners. Asian Social Science, 15(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v15n1p1.

Molnar, D., & Crnjak, G. (2019). Exploring foreign language communication apprehension among the English language University students in the English Language Classroom setting. European Journal of Social Science Education and Research, 5(2), 27-39. https://doi.org/10.2478/ejser-2018-0031.

Moslehifar, M. A., & Ibrahim, N. A. (2012). English Language oral communication needs at the Workplace: Feedback from human resource development (HRD) trainees. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 529-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.297.

Nantanawanich, P. (2017). Anxiety of EFL employees when using English oral communication at workplaces in Hong Kong And in Bangkok, Thailand. Thammasat University.

Pitt, L. F., Berthon, P. R., & Robson, M. J. (2000). Communication apprehension and perceptions of salesperson performance: a multinational perspective. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1), 68-82. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940010305315

Pragash, M., Sultana, A., Khor, K. K., & Ramendran, C. (2020). Communication apprehension and intercultural willingness to communicate among undergraduates in Malaysian public universities. International Journal of Law, Government and Communication, 5(18), 01-11. https://doi.org/10.35631/ijlgc.518001.

Radzuan, N. R. M., & Kaur, S. (2010). A survey of oral communication apprehension in English among ESP learners in an engineering course. English for Specific Purposes World, 10(31), 129-142.

Rafek, M. B., Ramli, N. H. L. B., Iksan, H. B., Harith, N. M., & Abas, A. I. B. C. (2014). Gender and Language: Communication Apprehension in second language learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 90-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1401.

Rasakumaran, A., & Indra Devi, S. (2017). Oral Communication apprehension among freshmen: A case in the Faculty of Medicine. Journal of Human Capital Development (JHCD), 10(1), 19-32.

Razawi, N. A., Zulkornain, L. H., & Razlan, R. M. (2015). Anxiety in oral presentations among ESL students. Journal of Academia UiTM Negeri Sembilan, 7(1), 31-36.

Rimkeeratikul, S. (2018). Comparison of communication apprehension in L1 and communication apprehension in L2 among MA Students with different ages majoring in English in an International Program in Bangkok. Arab World English Journal, 9(3), 33-44. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol9no3.3.

Russ, T. L. (2013). The relationship between Theory X/Y: Assumptions and communication apprehension. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 34(3), 238-249. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731311326675.

Singh, A. K. J., & Harun, R. N. S. R. (2020). Industrial trainees learning experiences of english related tasks at the workplace. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(1), 22-42. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v7i1.16064.

Subatira, B., Indra Devi, S., & Linda, K. M. S. (2018). Oral communication apprehension and Muet speaking performance of engineering undergraduates in a Technical University. Innovative Teaching and Learning Research Day 2018, 14 August 2018. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.18560.99846.

Sudipa, I. N., Aryati, K. F., Susanta, I. P. A. E., & Anggayana, I. W. A. (2020). The development of syllabus and lesson plan based on English for occupational purposes. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(04), 290-300. https://doi.org/10.37200/ijpr/v24i4/pr201009.

Vicky, C., Ting, H. L., & Yeo, J. Y. (2016). Investigating English language anxiety among UiTM Sarawak undergraduates. Journal of Creative Practices in Language Learning and Teaching (CPLT), 4(1), 50-62.

Wan Mustapha, W. Z., Ismail, N., Singh, D. S. R., & Elias@Alias, S. (2010). ESL students communication apprehension and their choice. Asean Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 2(1), 22-29.

Winiecki, K. L., & Ayres, J. (1999). Communication apprehension and receiver apprehension in the workplace. Communication Quarterly, 47(4), 430-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463379909385572.

Wiśniowski, A., Sakshaug, J. W., Perez Ruiz, D. A., & Blom, A. G. (2020). Integrating probability and nonprobability samples for survey inference. In Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology (Vol. 8, Issue 1, pp. 120–147). https://doi.org/10.1093/jssam/smz051.

Yook, E. L. (2015). An exploratory cross-cultural analysis of communication apprehension between French and American Managerial and Non-managerial employees. Global Business & Management Research, 7(4), 1-7. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=113006298&site=ehost-live.

Zulkifli, V. (2007). Language classroom anxiety: A comparative study of ESL learners. Asian Journal of University Education, 3(2), 75-99.

Downloads

Published

2023-12-04

How to Cite

Mat Husin, M. Z., & Khamis, N. Y. (2023). Is Average Worrying? A Mixed Method Study of Malaysian Public University Administrative Staff’s Workplace Communication Apprehension. LSP International Journal, 10(2), 27–50. https://doi.org/10.11113/lspi.v10.20202

Issue

Section

Articles