Blended Learning to Enhance Writing Skills of Young ESL Learners


  • Manmit Kaur Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Shanti C Sandaran Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Blended Learning (BL), Young Learners, Writing Sentences, ESL Classroom


This study investigated the impact of Blended Learning on sentence writing skills among young ESL learners in the classroom. Bridging a gap in existing literature, the research enlisted thirty primary school students and adopted a mixed-method research design. For data collection, a quasi-experimental research design featuring a one-group pre-test and post-test, a questionnaire survey, and a focus group interview was implemented. Paired sample T-test analyzed the pre-test and post-test data, while frequency and percentage were employed for questionnaire data, both accompanied by descriptive statistical analysis. Thematic analysis was used to analysis the interview data. The outcomes revealed a significant enhancement in young learners' writing skills post the BL Approach implementation, signifying its effectiveness. The study also shed light on BL's role in augmenting writing motivation among young learners by transforming their negative perceptions about writing. The findings provide valuable insights into the benefits of using Blended Learning (BL) for teaching sentence writing in elementary school students. Policymakers and educators can gain a deeper understanding of teachers' perspectives on imparting writing skills to young learners, allowing language students to concentrate on building strong sentence-writing capabilities through BL.


Akbarov, A., Gönen, K., & Aydoğan, H. (2018b). Students’ attitudes toward blended learning in EFL context. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 11(1), 61-68.

Al Zumor, A. W. Q., Al Refaai, I. K., Bader Eddin, E. A., & Aziz Al-Rahman, F. H. (2013). EFL students’ perceptions of a blended learning environment: advantages, limitations and suggestions for improvement. English Language Teaching, 6(10), 95-110.

Alonso, F., López, G., Manrique, D., and Viñes, J. M. (2005). An instructional model for web‐based e‐learning education with a blended learning process approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 217-235.

Annamalai, N., Tan, K. E., and Abdullah, A. (2016). Teaching presence in an online collaborative learning environment via facebook. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 24(1), 197-212.

Banditvilai, C. (2016). Enhancing students’ language skills through blended learning. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 14(3), 220-229.

Bates, A. W. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Beauvois, M. H. (1998). Conversations in slow motion: Computer-mediated communication in the foreign language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review-revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes, 54(2), 198-217.

Blair, R., & Serafini, T. M. (2016). Training versus education: ELearning, hybrid, and face-to-face modalities—A participatory debate. Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 14(5), 37-41.

Bliuc, A.-M., Goodyear, P., & Ellis, R. A. (2010). Research focus and methodological choices in studies into students' experiences of blended learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(4), 231-244. Doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.08.001.

Bonk, C. J., & Graham, C. R. (2012). The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Chang, V., & Fisher, D. L. (2003). The validation and application of a new learning environment instrument for online learning in higher education. In M. S. Khine & D. L. Fisher (Eds.), Technology-rich learning environments: A future perspective (pp.1–20). Singapore: World Scientific publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Clark, C. M. (2013). The effects of explicit writing instruction. Graduate Research Papers. 35.

Creswell, J. W. (2001). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research.

De Naeghel, J., Van Keer, H., Vansteenkiste, M., & Rosseel, Y. (2012). The relation between elementary students' recreational and academic reading motivation, reading frequency, engagement, and comprehension: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1006.

De Smedt, F. (2019). Cognitive and motivational challenges in writing: The impact of explicit instruction and peer-assisted writing in upper-elementary grades. Doctoral Dissertation. Ghent University.

De Smedt, F., & Van Keer, H. (2018). An analytic description of an instructional writing program combining explicit writing instruction and peer-assisted writing. Journal of Writing Research, 10(2), 225-277.

De Smedt, F., Graham, S., & Van Keer, H. (2019). The bright and dark side of writing motivation: Effects of explicit instruction and peer assistance. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(2), 152-167.

De Smedt, F., Merchie, E., Barendse, M., Rosseel, Y., De Naeghel, J., & Van Keer, H. (2018). Cognitive and motivational challenges in writing: Studying the relationship with writing performance across students’ gender and achievement level. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(2), 249-272.

De Smedt, F., Rogiers, A., Heirweg, S., Merchie, E., & Van Keer, H. (2020). Assessing and mapping reading and writing motivation in third to eight graders: A self-determination theory perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1678.

De Smedt, F., Van Keer, H., & Merchie, E. (2016). Student, teacher and class-level correlates of Flemish late elementary school children’s writing performance. Reading and Writing, 29(5), 833-868.

Dudeney, G and Hockly, N. (2007). How to Teach English with Technology. Pearson Education Limited.

Dornyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Pearson Education.

Erkan, D. Y., & Saban, A. I. (2011). Writing performance relative to writing apprehension, self-efficacy in writing, and attitudes towards writing: A correlational study in Turkish tertiary-level EFL. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 13(1), 163-191.

Finlayson, K., & McCrudden, M. T. (2019). Teacher implemented self-regulated strategy development for story writing with 6-year-olds in a whole-class setting in New Zealand. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. Doi: 10.1080 /02568543.2019.1568328.

Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2008). Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework, Principles, and Guidelines. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Geta, M., & Olango, M. (2016). The impact of blended learning in developing students' writing skills: Hawassa University in focus. African Educational Research Journal, 4(2), 49-68.

Ghazizadeh, T., & Fatemipour, H. (2017). The effect of blended learning on EFL learners’ reading proficiency. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(3), 606-614.

Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C.J. Bonk & C.R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs (pp. 3-21). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Bostanci, H. B., Çavuşoğlu, C. & Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2018). Pen-and-paper or online? An academic writing course to teacher-trainees. Cogent Education, 5, 1. Doi: 10.1080/2331186X.2018.1482606.

Hofmann, J. (2014). Solutions to the top 10 challenges of blended learning. Top 10 challenges of blended learning. Available on

Jacobs, H. L., S. A. Zingraf, D. R. Wormuth, V. F. Hartfiel, and J. B. Hughey. (1981). Testing ESL Composition: A Practical Approach. Rowley, MA: Newbury House

Kellogg, R. T. (2008). Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), 1-16. Doi: 10.17239/jowr-2008.01.01.1.

Kenney, J., & Newcombe, (2011). Adopting a blended learning approach: Challenges encountered and lesson learned in an action research study. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 15(1).

Keshta, A. S. & Harb, I. (2013). The effectiveness of a blended learning program on developing Palestinian tenth graders' English writing skills. Education Journal, 2(6), 208-221.

Laurillard, D. M. (2007). The teacher as action researcher: Using technology to capture pedagogic form. Studies in Higher Education, 33(2), 139-154

Liu, M. (2013). Blended learning in a University EFL writing course: Description and evaluation. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 4(2), 301-309. Doi:10.4304/jltr.4.2.301-309.

Loan, P. T. M., & Yen, P. H. (2017). High school students’ perception and writing performance with freewriting technique implementation.

Mastan, M. E. B., Maarof, N., & Embi, M. A. (2017). The effect of writing strategy instruction on ESL intermediate proficiency learners’ writing performance. Journal of Educational Research and Review, 5(5), 71-78.

Matukhin, D. L., & Gorkaltseva, E. N. (2015). Teaching foreign language for specific purposes in terms of professional competency development. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 525-531.

Miarso, Y. (2014). Menyamai benih teknologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Pustekom Prenada Media Production.

Molfese, V., Beswick, J., Jacobi-Vessels, J., Armstrong, N., Culver, B., White, J. (2011). Evidence of alphabetic knowledge in writing: Connections to letter and word identification skills in preschool and kindergarten. Reading and Writing, 24, 133-150.

Moskal, P. D. & Cavanagh, T. B. (2013). Scaling blended learning evaluation beyond the university. In A. G. Picciano, C. D. Dziuban & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives, Volume 2 (pp. 34-51). New York & London: Routledge Ltd.

Mwakyusa, W. P., & Mwalyagile, N. V. (2016). Impediments of e-learning adoption in higher learning institutions of Tanzania: An empirical review. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(30), 152-160.

Moussa-Inaty J. (2017). Student experiences of a blended learning environment. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 16(9), 60-72.

Nation, I. S. (2011). Research into practice: Vocabulary. Language Teaching, 44(4), 529-539.

Neumeier, P. (2005). A closer look at blended learning — parameters for designing a blended learning environment for language teaching and learning. ReCALL, 17(2), 163-178.

Padmadewi, N. N., & Artini, L. P. (2019). Using scaffolding strategies in teaching writing for improving student literacy in primary school. International Conference on Islamic Education (ICoIE 2018). Atlantis Press.

Ramalingam, S., Melor Md Yunus & Harwati Hashim. (2021). Exploring ESL learners’ blended learning experiences and its’ effectiveness through web-based technologies. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 10(4),1436-1445.

Richards, J. & Renandya, W. (Eds.). 2002. Methodology in language teaching: An analysis of current practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2012). Talk to me! Games and students’ willingness to communicate. In H. Reinders (Ed.), Digital games in language learning and teaching (pp. 156–188). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 319-338. Doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_03.

Saberi, E., & Rahimi, R. (2013). Guided writing tasks vs. production writing tasks in teaching writing: The impact on Iranian EFL learners’ paragraph writing. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 3(2), 129.

Shaw, S. D., & Weir, C. J. (2007). Examining writing: Research and practice in assessing second language writing. Cambridge University Press.

Shuib, M., & Azizan, S.N. (2015). Learning style preferences among male and female ESL students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia. Journal of Educators Online, 12, 103-141.

Silverman, David. (2015). Interpreting Qualitative Data. (5th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Soiferman, L. K. (2017). Teaching high school students how to write: The importance of direct explicit instruction and teacher training.

Soleimani, H., Hamasaid, H. H., & Saheb, B. M. (2020). L2 Writing anxiety, writing self-efficacy and writing motivatio: As correlates of global L2 writing performance. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 156-165.

Stanford, D. A. (2019). Improving writing across the curriculum: A coherent approach to explicit writing instruction. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Massachusetts Lowell.

Süğümlü, Ü., Mutlu, H. H., & Çinpolat, E. (2019). Relationship between writing motivation levels and writing skills among secondary school students. Journal of Elementary Education, 11(5), 487-492.

Teng, F. (2019). A comparison of text structure and self-regulated strategy instruction for elementary school students’ writing. English Teaching, 18(3), 281-297.

Thang, S. M., Ting, M., Ling, S. & Nurjanah Mohd Jaafar. (2011). Attitudes and motivation of Malaysian secondary students towards learning English as a second language: A case study. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies. 17(1), 40-54.

Tobin, K. (2007). Qualitative perceptions of learning environments on the world wide web. Learning Environments Research, 1(2), 139-162.

Tsiriotakis, I. K., Grünke, M., Spantidakis, I., Vassilaki, E., & Stavrou, N. A. (2020). The Impact of an explicit writing intervention on EFL students’ short story writing. Frontiers in Education, 1(5), 183-190.

Wang, B. T., Teng, C. W., & Chen, H. T. (2015). Using iPad to facilitate English vocabulary learning, International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 5(2), 100-104.

Williams, C., & Lowrance-Faulhaber, E. (2018). Writing in young bilingual children: Review of research. Journal of Second Language Writing, 42, 58-69.

Yunus, M., & Mat, S. S. (2014). Writing Needs and strategies of FELDA primary ESL pupils. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(2), 1017-1035.

Yunus, M. M., Yaacob, N., & Suliman, A. (2020). The use of electronic frog VLE in assisting reading comprehension activities. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 879-887. doi:10.13189/ujer.2020.080319.

Zhang, C., & Bingham, G. E. (2018). Promoting high-leverage writing instruction through an early childhood classroom daily routine (WPI): A professional development model of early writing skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 49, 138-151.




How to Cite

Kaur, M., & C Sandaran , S. (2023). Blended Learning to Enhance Writing Skills of Young ESL Learners . LSP International Journal, 10(2), 109–125.